Roles of Pondok and Madrasah in Preserving the Jawi Script in Malay Language in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand


  • Ibrahem Narongraksakhet Faculty of Islamic Sciences, Prince of Songkla University Pattani Campus
  • Numan Hayimasae Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus
  • Muhamatsakree Manyunu Faculty of Education, Fatoni University
  • Hanafi Wonglee Faculty of Education, Yala Rajabhat University


Pondok, Madrasah , Jawi Script


Objectives: This research was aimed to study 1. The Coming of Islam in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand 2. The Development of Pondok and Madrasah in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand 3. Roles of Pondok and Madrasah in preserving Malay Language using Jawi script in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand.

Methodology: This qualitative research had applied the documentary research methodology that emphasized on primary sources while second and tertiary sources were also used.

Research Findings: The existence of the southern border region of Thailand has been related to the arrival of Islam to this region. From historical facts, the southern border region of Thailand was a part of the ancient Malay settlement known as “Langkasuka”. Some historians believed that Langkasuka was located on the east side of the Malay Peninsula which was located between Songkhla and Kelantan and some argued that it was located on the west side of the Malay Peninsula.

The ancient religions of the inhabitants of Langkasuka were Brahma, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. The elite in the Langkasuka society mostly were Hindus, Brahmins, and Buddhists. Islam came to this region in the 15th century and the locals converted to Islam in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. It could be said briefly that the arrival of Islam in the southern border provinces of Thailand could be divided into two parts, 1. The entry of Islam into the ruling class.2. The introduction of Islam into inhabitants.

            After the last king of Langkasuka embraced Islam Langkasuka gradually disappeared and Patani government emerged as its successor and Islam spread widely and replaced some of the old cultures and practices of the society including daily rituals and styles. Then the Malay language that used Palawa writing was replaced by the Jawi writing that based on Arabic alphabet. Among main institutions that have played their roles in preserving the Jawi Script were Pondok and Madrasah. Pondok was firstly founded in the 15th century while Madrasah appeared in the 20th century.

Malay Language is an Austronesian language that had 5 eras, namely, Ancient Malay, Old Malay, Classical Malay, Premodern Malay, and Modern Malay while Malay script can be divided into periods, namely, Old Period, Pakatan Period, Za’ba Period, Jawi Dian Period and Modern Period respectively.

Contribution: It is a new body of knowledge that can be an academic contribution and can be further developed in the academic circle.


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How to Cite

Narongraksakhet, I., Hayimasae, N. ., Manyunu, M. ., & Wonglee, H. . (2023). Roles of Pondok and Madrasah in Preserving the Jawi Script in Malay Language in Southern Border Provinces of Thailand. Journal of Islamic Studies, Prince of Songkla University, 14(2), 1–21. Retrieved from



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