Pandora’s Box on the Shelf? Halal Certification, the GMF Marketplace and the Muslim Consumer

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Anke Iman Bouzenita
Hemmy Kirsten
Bronwyn P. Wood


The paper outlines halal certification reliability and consumer attitude towards it generally. It reveals some of the issues the halal industry faces in terms of its credibility. As difficulties to develop halal certification standards persist even with conventional food stuffs, the paper goes on to question the possible integration of genetically modified food (GMF) into the halal market. It investigates different Islamic legal mechanisms and their suitability to evaluate GMF and its halal status. The paper then sheds some light on the GMF marketplace and the need for labelling from a consumer rights perspective. It concludes that the Muslims’ global purchasing power should translate into more influence taking with regard to more Islamically compliant production, processing and labelling on a wider scale.


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Bouzenita, A. I., Kirsten, H., & P. Wood, B. (2019). Pandora’s Box on the Shelf? Halal Certification, the GMF Marketplace and the Muslim Consumer. Journal of Islamic Studies, Prince of Songkla University, 10(1), 62-72. Retrieved from
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