The Development of Vocabulary Learning Model Based on the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (VCML)

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Nopthira Jawaut
Sumalee Chinokul


          In learning a language, vocabulary is one of the most significant factors, lying as a solid basis for learners; however, the complex system of human’s cognitive processing works under many constraints. Meanwhile, the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning has entered the mainstream as an effective tool for the memory manipulation, in order to promote better understanding and deeper understanding of a learning content. Hence, a development of vocabulary learning model, incorporating the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, is worthwhile to be researched in the present study. Qualitative data for the model development were obtained by semi-structured interview, with nine experts across three different fields, including English language instruction, instructional design, and human cognitive study. As a result of the study, the five key components of the model comprised (1) Input, referred to as  instructional materials and activities characterized the conceptual features, (2) Instructional Process, designed as a sequence of three stages, including pre-stage, while-stage, and post-stage, respectively, (3) Evaluation, consisted of achievement tests, a delayed test, a test of transferred knowledge to use, and an opinion survey, (4) Output, categorized into two aspects, namely, a word-form and meaning learning achievement, and word use, and (5) Outcome, included vocabulary size expansion, long-term retention and opinion towards the application of VCML. Quantitative data were collected from an experiment, carrying out to investigate the effects of the model application. The results indicated a significant higher level of the score on learners’ achievement and retention (p=0.01).


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Jawaut, N., & Chinokul, S. (2020). The Development of Vocabulary Learning Model Based on the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (VCML). Journal of Humanities Naresuan University, 17(2), 27-48. Retrieved from
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