Main Article Content
This research article, aims to: 1) examine the state of SLE sickness and stress problems in terms of medical science, 2) study the Buddha’s teaching of mindfulness in Theravāda Buddhism, and 3) propose the stress management for the SLE patient’s mindset adjustment based on the Buddha’s teaching of mindfulness; it is qualitative research, it draws on documents, in including The Tipiṭaka, commentaries and sub-commentaries of Pāli Text Society’s English translation series; primary source texts from medical sciences, and Buddhist textbooks, research works and journals, together with in-depth interviews conducted with three groups of key informants total of 12 people: Buddhist scholars/experts, SLE doctors/ Nurses and SLE patients, and a focus group discussion among Buddhist scholars, Vipassana master, meditation teacher, psychologist and Buddhist psychology scholars.
My research findings are as follows:
1) SLE (auto-immune disease) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting multiple organ systems. When the disease is active, immune responses can cause inflammation in cells which can affect one or many tissues of the human body. Stress is one of the crucial factors for SLE activation; its medical or biological context is of physical and mental or emotional factors that cause bodily and mental tension 2) The Buddha’s teaching of mindfulness, the four foundations of mindfulness help mental development, physical improvement and stress reduction.
3) The Buddhist approach to mindfulness and mindfulness practice are proposed as mindful stress management techniques for SLE patients’ mindset adjustment for application in their daily lives. The Buddha’s teaching of mindfulness plays the most important role for this “stress management”; the key components of it called “Mindful techniques”: Moment in Moment Observation (M), Intelligence (I), Non-Judgement (N), Detachment (D), Forgiveness (F), Understanding Oneself (U), and Live with Love (L), aim to help patients adjust mindset and manage stress:
Chamlong Disayavanish M.D., Stress Anxiety and Health,
Chiangmai: Chiangmai Printing Sangsilp Ltd., 2002.
Dr.Nittayawan Kulanawan, “Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)”
The pharmacy council: CPE Plus journal, Bangkok: Sabpasarn Co.Ltd.
Elisha Goldstien PhD, “Uncovering Happiness Overcoming
Depression with Mindfulness and Self-Compassion”, New York USA: A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2015
Elisha Goldstein PhD., Bob Stahl PhD., MBSR Every Day: Daily
Practices from the Heart of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Oakland: Raincoast books, 2015
Frits Koster, Buddhist Meditation, Bangkok: Silkworm books,
Joseph Goldstein & Jack Kornfield, Seeking the Heart of Wisdom:
The Path of Insight Meditation, Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1987
P.A Payutto, Samadhi: base for mental health and wisdom,
Bangkok: Siam Publishing, 2010.
Tessa Watt, Mindfulness: A Practical Guide, London: Icon Books
Chiara Samele, Harry Lees-Manning, Victoria Zamperoni, Isabella
Goldie, Lucy Thorpe, Emily Wooster, Toni Giugliano, Chris
O’Sullivan, Antonis Kousoulis, Josefien Breedvelt, Mark
Rowland & Richard Grange: “Stress Are We Coping?”
Research Report” Mental Health Foundation, UK, 2018.
Lupus UK organization, “Booklet A Short Guide to Lupus and
Visiting Your Doctor” Essex: St James House, 2015.
PM Boonlerd, Dr.Kamalat and Dr.Puttachard Bio-feedback
Research, Sukkhachivee Vithibhud, 1st publishing
Subramanian Shankar, Vineet Behera, “Advances in Management
of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus” Journal of Mahatma
Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Internal
Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra,
Dr.surawut Prichanond, Vichaiyut Hospital, 3 November 2019.