Using the ‘Avoid-Shift-Improve’ Approach to Evaluate The 12-Year Development Plan (2009 – 2020) for Bangkok's Sustainable Transportation Goals

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Napisa Wisuttipun
Alan Marshall
Assoc. Prof. Kanang Kantamaturapoj


This study aimed to evaluate the 12-year development plan for Bangkok Metropolis (2009 – 2020) and to propose recommendations for improving sustainable transportation in the city. A qualitative approach was employed, whereby in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 15 key informants from public, private, and academic sectors. The ‘Avoid-Shift-Improve’ (ASI) approach was used as a framework to analyse the plan to achieve in policies to limit GHG emission and provide alternative mobility solutions for sustainable transport systems development. This study found that the 12-year development plan did not meet the criteria of ASI. Specifically, an avoidance of increased transportation activity was not found. A jobs-housing plan was not found. And Transit-Oriented Development was not integrated into the plan. Also, easily available existing technologies were not used to manage transportation.  On the positive side, there was a shift mode of transportation to public transport and non-motorised transport, however, the demand and supply of transportation services in this regard were imbalanced.  Also, the ticket price of mass transit was found to be high and the distance between transportation nodes was disconnected. Thus, the shift to public transportation was generally unsuccessful. Regarding the improvement from conventional to greener technology on vehicle technology and fuel efficiency, the government promoted electric vehicles, but the tax cut policy did not attract buyers. Therefore, the attempt to improve existing forms of transport was ineffective. Six recommendations were drawn from this study; 1) encouragement of mixed land use, 2) increased accessibility and connectivity of mass transit system, 3) integrated ticketing with fare reduction program, 4) bus service quality improvement, 5) tax cut policy for electric cars, and 6) paradigm shift for public transportation after COVID-19 pandemic.


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