Buddhist Noble Eightfold Path Approach in the Study of Consumer and Organizational Behaviors

Main Article Content

Chai Ching Tan
Phrapalad Somchai Damnoen

บทคัดย่อ

This article underpins on a literature review i.e. of the Buddhist Canons of knowledge, that traces the roots of the study of people’s behaviours back to 2500-plus years old, and empirically shows the intellectual and utility power of the Noble Eightfold Path, represented as a process configuration framework, to guide the study of organizational and consumer behaviours. This article also shows how the model embraces and integrates well-known contemporary theories of behaviours, owed to the works of Schwartz and Howard’s (1981) Norm Activation Theory (NAT) and Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behaviour. Three broad-based hypotheses are posited for questionnaire-based empirical validation purposes. The five cases include a social enterprise case in Indonesia, branded coffee chain study in Thailand, hospital patient perceptions of the services, employee perceptions in a construction material trading organization in Chiang Rai, and the construction industry in Chiang Rai. Specifically, this research conceptualizes and empirically validate a model of Buddhist epistemological base for modelling behavioural processes, and provides a bridge to connect the disciplines of organizational and consumer behaviours, and psychology to Buddhism. Three significant patterns of the structural relationships linking the behavioural units of interest, both for consumer and organizational behavioural dynamics, and their flows, are explained and empirically supported by use of multiple regression techniques. First, based on behavioural encounters, by either the consumers or the employees, the perceptions, affection and experiences formed are shown statistically significant able to influence the view-formation (i.e. manifested either in terms of personal norm, brand image, brand trust, or attitude), and in turn, on the second, the various facets of the views formed, in relevant to the researched phenomena and the application context, are shown statistically significant able to influence thought or intention (i.e. loyalty, commitment), and behaviours (i.e. characterized by the continuing purchase of consumers, or corporate citizenship behaviours or engagement of the employees in organization). Third, the multiple regression analysis supports the dynamic interactions or correlational relationships among the variables of the perceptions and affections of the experiences encountered.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บท
บทความวิจัย
Author Biography

Phrapalad Somchai Damnoen, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University

Ven.Dr.Phrapalad Somchai Payogo (Damnoen) is a lecturer from, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, Thailand. He Graduated in Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Buddhist Study , Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University. There is research results published in the national database. TCI1 and a total of 60 international databases and received the Best Research Award and have been selected to be evaluated into the database ACI. He is interested in conducting research in Education and Educational innovation.

E-mail: somchai.dam@mcu.ac.th, Tel. (+66)84-828-2036

References

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Arnett, J.J. (1996). Sensation seeking, aggressiveness, and adolescent reckless behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(6), 693-702

Baker, R.G. (1968). Ecological psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Bennett, P.D. (1995). Dictionary of marketing terms. Chicago, IL: American Marketing.

Berry, L.L., Donaldson, B., & Kazani, U. (2004). Insurance broker-client relationships: An assessment of quality and duration. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 8(4), 327-342.

Berry, LL., Davis, S.W., & Wilmet, J. (2015). When the customer is stressed. Harvard Business Review, 93(10), pp. 87-94.

Bitner, M.J. (1992). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57-71.

Blackwell, R.D., Miniard, P.W., & Engel, J.F. (2001). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH: Southwestern.

Booms, B.H., & Bitner, M.J. (1982). Marketing strategies and organizational structure for service firms. In J.H. Donnelly & W.R. George (Eds.), Marketing of service. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.

Boroff, K., & Lewin, D. (1997). Loyalty, voice, and intent to exit a union firm: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Industrial and Labor Relationships Review, 51(1), 50-63.

Buchanan, B. (1974). Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(4), 535-546.

Buchholtz, A.K., & Carroll, A.B. (2008). Business and society: Ethics and stakeholder management. USA: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Cohen, J. (1992). Power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159

East, R., Wright, M., & Vanhuele, M. (2013). Consumer behaviour: Applications in marketing. UK: Sage.

Feldwick, P. (1996). Do we really need brand equity. The Journal of Brand Management, 4(1), 9-28.

Fishbein, M. (1963). An Investigation of the relationship between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. Human Relations, 16, 233-240.

Fombrun, P.M., & Vasquez-Parraga, A.Z. (2013). Consumer social responses to CSR initiatives versus corporate abilities. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30, 100-111.

Frederick, W.C. (1978). From CSR1 to CSR 2: The maturing of business-and-society thought. Working Paper No. 279, Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh.

Gardner, G.T& Stern, P.C. (2002). Environmental problems and human behaviour. Boston: Pearson.

Gopalakrishna, D & Datt, A. (2011). Buddhist virtues: The foundations of socio-economic development – A Study. (8th International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak Celebrations, Thailand.

Hackman, J & Oldham, G. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159-170.

Han, S.H., Yun, M., Kim, K & Kwanhk, J. (2000). Evaluation of product usability: Development and validation of usability dimensions and design elements based on empirical models. International Journal of Industry, 477-488

Hassan, S.H. (2011). Understanding preference formation of functional food among Malaysian Muslims. In O. Sandikci and G. Rice (Eds.), Handbook of Islamic Marketing. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Haron, S.N., Hamid, M.Y & Talib, A. (2012). Towards healthcare service quality: An understanding of the usability concept in healthcare design. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, 42, 63-73.

Hoch, S.J & Ha, Y.W. (1986). Consumer learning: Advertising and the ambiguity of product experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (September), 221-233.

Hoftstede, G & Bond, M.H. (2001). The Confucius connection: From culture roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16, 4-21.

Johansson, R.A. (1979). The dynamic psychology of early Buddhism. Great Britain: Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies.

Karimi, S Holland, C.P & Papamichail, K.N. (2018). The impact of consumer archetypes on online purchase decision-making processes and outcomes: A behavioural process perspective. Journal of Business Research, 91, 71-82

Keller, K. (2002). Strategic brand Management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Kim J.H & Ritchie, B.J.R. (2014). Cross-cultural validation of a memorable tourism experience scale (MTES). Journal of Travel Research, 53(3), 323-335.

Klein, H., Wesson, M., Hollenbeck, J., & Alge, B. (1999). Goal commitment and the goal-setting process: Conceptual clarification and empirical synthesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 885-896.

Kline, T. (1999). The team player inventory: Reliability and validity of measure of predisposition toward organization team working environment. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24, 102-122.

Kok, P., Weile, T.V.D., Mckenna, R & Brown, A.A. (2001). Corporate social responsibility audit within a quality management framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 31, 285-297.

Lassar, W., Mittal, B & Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity. Journal of Customer Marketing, 11-20.

Leck, J & Saunders, D. (1992). Hirschman’s loyalty: Attitude or behaviour? Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 5(3), 219-231.

Lee, H.X. (2011). Avalokitesvara and compassion: Faith and practice for harmonious living beyond Asian and Asian American communities. (8th) International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak Celebrations, Thailand.

Lee, S., Seo, K & Sharma, A. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and firm performance in the airline industry: The moderating role of oil prices. Tourism Management, 38, 20-30.

Lewin, K. (1952). Frontiers in group dynamics. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Field theory in social science. London: Social Science Paperbacks.

Liburd, J., Benckendorff, J. & Carlsen, J. (2012). Chapter 7: Tourism and quality-of-life: How does tourism measure up? In M. Usyal, R. Perdue & M.J. Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of tourism and quality-of-life research.USA: Springer.

Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717.

Mathras, D., Cohen, A.B., Mandel, N., & Mick, D.G. (2015). The effects of religion on consumer behaviour: A conceptual framework and research agenda. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi: (10), j.jcps, 08.001.

McKnight, D.H. (1997). Motivating computer systems operators: Job characteristics, controls, and relationship, University of Minnesota.Minnesota, USA.

Mick, D.G. (2016). Buddhist psychology: Selected insights, benefits and research agenda for consumer psychology. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi: (10), j.jcps, 04.003.

Minton, E.A. & Kahle, L. (2013). Belief systems, religion, and behavioural economics: Marketing in multicultural environments. New York, NY: Business Expert Press.

Mowday, R., Porter, L., Steers, R. & Boulian, P. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(4), 603-609

Neil, J.D., Sirgy, M.J. & Uysal, M. (1999). The role of satisfaction with leisure travel/tourism services and experience in satisfaction with leisure life and overall life. Journal of Business Research, 44, 153-163.

Nidumolu, R., Prahalad, C.K. & Rangaswami, M.R. (2009). Why sustainability is now the biggest driver of innovation. Harvard Business Review, 87(9), 26-34.

Organ, D. (1988). Organizational citizenship behaviour: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington: Lexington Books

Pichard, D. & Robinson, M. (2012). Emotion in motion: Tourism, affect and transformation. England: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Pocock, B., Skinner, N. & Williams P. (2007). Work, life, and time: The Australian work and life index. Magill: Center for Work and Life, Hawke Research Institute, University of South Australia.

Podsakoff, P., Ahearne, M. & MacKenzie, S. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 262-270.

Qur’an (undated). English translation of the meaning. Revised version of the translation by Abdallah Yusuf Ali, Saudi Arabia.

Scharmer, C.O. (2008). Theory U: Leading from the future as it emerges. San Franscico, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.

Schermerhorn, J.R.Jr., Osborn, R.N., Uhl-Bien, M. & Hunt, J.G. (2012). Organizational behavior. Asia: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Schwatz, S.H. & Howard, J.A. (1981). Normative decision-making model of altruism. In J.P. Ruston & R.M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Altruism and helping behavior, social, personality, and development perspectives.Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum.

Stajkovic, A. & Luthans, F. (2003). Behavioral management and task performance in organizations, conceptual background, meta-analysis, and test of alternative methods. Personnel Psychology, 56(1), 155-194.

Stephens, J.K. (2011). Ethics of intention and effect: Making decisions on how to act in a world full of need. (8 ) International Buddhist Conference on the United Nations Day of Vesak Celebrations, Thailand.

Sverke, M. & Goshlinga, S. (2003), The consequences of job insecurity for employers and unions: Exit, voice, and loyalty. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 24(2), 241-270.

Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall

Tan, C.C. (2016). Towards a phenomenological theory of corporate social responsibility and its spirited services. India: IMRF Publication House.

Tan C.C. (2018a). A social and cybernetic psychological model for the social entrepreneurship-driven community-based tourism (CBT) development in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Religions and Cultures, 2(2), 1-24.

Tan, C.C. (2018b). Giving strategic management an epistemological structure: A case of community-based tourism. National Academy of Managerial Staff of Culture and Arts Herald, 1, 723-733.

Thibos, C. & Gillespie, K. (2011). Islam and corporate social responsibility in the Arab World: Reporting and Discourse. In O. Sandikci and G. Rice (Eds.), Handbook of Islamic Marketing. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc

Tremblay, M.A., Blanchard, C.M., Taylor, S. & Pelletier, L.G. (2009). Work extrinsic and intrinsic motivation scale: Its value for organizational psychology research. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 41(4), 213-226.

Tuu, H.H. & Olsen, S.O. (2010). Ambivalence and involvement in the satisfaction-repurchase loyalty relationship. Australasian Marketing Journal, 18, 151-158.

Van Scotter, J. & Motowidlo, S. (1996), Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 525-531.

Visser, W. (2005). Revisiting Carroll’s CSR pyramid: An African perspective. In E.R. Pedersen & M. Huniche (Eds.), Corporate citizenship in a development perspective.Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.

Wiener, Y. (1982). Commitment in organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management Review, 7, 418-428.

Williams, J., Miller, C. & Steelman, L. (1999). Increasing feedback seeking in public contexts: It takes two (or more) to tango. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 969-976.

Wood, D.J. (2009). Measuring corporate social performance: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 50-84

Worthington, E.L. Jr. (2005). Initial questions about the art and science of forgiving. In E.L.Jr. Worthington (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Routledge.

Yeung, W.H., Gimello, R.M. & Lai, W. (2008). The way to Buddhahood: Translating the works of master Yin-Shun. Somerville, Massachusetts: Wisdom Publications.

Yusof, R.N.P., Everett, A.M. and Cone, M.H. (2011). Market-Orientation and Islamic Business Practices in Malaysia. In O. Sandikci and G. Rice (Eds.). Handbook of Islamic Marketing. Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.

Zorzopulos, S. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the United Arab Emirates: A Preliminary Assessment. Dubai Ethics Resource Center.