Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Structured Business Model for Tribes-based Community-based Tourism: Cases with Chiang Rai

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Chai Ching Tan
Bussaba Sitikarn


No previous studies in the topics relating to community-based tourism (CBT) and its business model development, for sustainability-oriented purpose, have presented a management-oriented approach through the lens of balanced scorecard (BSC). This paper contributes to fill this gap and considers three interrelated research questions: What are the current states-of-play of the focus in each perspective of the BSC structure (i.e. growth-oriented, internal business process, customer, and sustainability), which narrate the efforts of the communities in CBT, (2) what benefits that are already observable when implementing CBT by taking a BSC approach, and (3) how BSC can guide the communities in designing and implementing their CBT business model? This research forms as a part of the overall research efforts of the authors and presents only the questionnaire-based survey aspect of the results. The other methodological instruments, such as participant observations, individual and focus-group interviews, are not presented, but they do provide the necessary triangulated and instrument-design supports, which contribute to the design of the questionnaires, and thus, construct and content validities, and reliability. The convergent and divergent validities of the survey instrument are discussed prior to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) assessments. The implications are discussed in view of the three research questions raised. The data were collected from the communities currently implementing community-based tourism (CBT) in the highlands located in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Coffee and teas cultivation and trading form the central livelihood means of the communities.


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Tan, C. C., & Sitikarn, B. (2019). Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Structured Business Model for Tribes-based Community-based Tourism: Cases with Chiang Rai. Journal of MCU Peace Studies, 7(4), 899-922. Retrieved from
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