Conditions and Problems of Computational Thinking Instruction in Lower Secondary Schools

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Kitiya Middleton
Praweenya Suwannatthachote


       The objectives of this study were to examine the conditions and problems of computational thinking instruction in lower secondary students and to suggest directions for developing a learning model that supports computational thinking in lower secondary students. This research project applied quantitative and qualitative research methods by collecting data from twenty-four teachers. The methodologies were also included survey and an interview with five experts. (Item Objective Congruence: IOC = 0.98).  The data were analyzed by finding frequency, percentage, mean ( ) and standard deviation (S.D.) in each question. We also included inductive analysis by interpretation and drew conclusions from the information obtained from the interviews. The study revealed that teachers agreed that there are problems in computational thinking in the areas of problem decomposition and modularity. There are four factors affecting students' comprehension of computational thinking: 1) students; 2) teachers; 3) learning activities; and 4) other factors. Methods used to prepare students were first, analyzing the content / students / purposes; second, preparation of media and equipment, and third, the design of learning activities. The research findings, suggested that directions for developing a learning model consist of analyzing contents, students, and purpose, preparation of instructional media, and design of learning activities. Teachers should choose the teaching method that is most suitable for the students. Create computational thinking experience for students both in the classroom and outside the classroom; and create a community about computational thinking. Furthermore, teachers should develop their own computational thinking skills continually and should also promote computational thinking research. The research’s contribution is providing information for teachers to develop and improve teaching methods and models of computational thinking.


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