Effects of Self-Efficacy and Teacher Autonomy on Thai EFL Pre-Service Teachers’ Online Teaching Practices During COVID-19 Pandemic DOI: 10.14456/jlapsu.2021.5

Main Article Content

Varis Jeh-Awae
Pamararat Wiriyakarun


The COVID-19 outbreak has caused a major change in teaching methodology from traditional face-to-face to online instruction. However, most Thai teachers, especially pre-service teachers apparently lack essential knowledge and skills for online teaching and learning that might affect their capabilities and confidence in their own teaching when they are assigned to teach online courses.

Adopting the conceptual framework of self-efficacy by Bandura (1997) and that of teacher autonomy by McGrath (2000) and Smith (2003), this study focused on investigating how self-efficacy and teacher autonomy affected Thai pre-service teachers’ teaching practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were seven pre-service teachers majoring in English language teaching who had taught at secondary schools in Pattani, Thailand.  A case study approach was used in this study to collect data from multiple sources with qualitative methods including semi-structured interviews, teacher diaries and lesson plans.

The results show that the participants had moderate self-efficacy due to their limited experience in online teaching practices. In addition, their autonomy seemed to be low due to contextual constraints that controlled their online teaching practices. The study also suggests that educators must be aware that teachers need time and practice in online teaching to develop their self-efficacy and need to be trained about online teaching techniques, teaching management, and teacher autonomy in the online context.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Jeh-Awae, V., & Wiriyakarun, P. (2021). Effects of Self-Efficacy and Teacher Autonomy on Thai EFL Pre-Service Teachers’ Online Teaching Practices During COVID-19 Pandemic: DOI: 10.14456/jlapsu.2021.5. Journal of Liberal Arts Prince of Songkla University, 13(2), 89–119. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/journal-la/article/view/254284
บทความวิจัย (research article)
Author Biography

Pamararat Wiriyakarun

Associate Professor, Ph.D., Department of Language Studies, School of Liberal Arts, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi


Atmojo, A. E. P., & Nugroho, A. (2020). EFL classes must go online! Teaching activities and challenges during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Register Journal, 13(1), 49-76. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341750033_EFL_


Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191

Bandera, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. W H. Freeman & Company.

Benson, P. (2000). Autonomy as a learners’ and teachers’ right. In B. Sinclair, I McGrath & T. Lamb (Eds.), Learner autonomy, teacher autonomy: Future directions (pp. 111-117). Longman.

Benson, P. (2013). Teaching and researching: Autonomy in language learning. Routledge.

Fajardo Castañeda, J. A., & Miranda Montenegro, I. R. (2015). The paradox of the practicum: Affinity to and resistance towards teaching. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 20(3), 239-341. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?pid=S0123-34322015000300004&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt

Ferrier-Kerr, J. L. (2009). Establishing professional relationships in practicum settings. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(6), 790-797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.01.001

Gupta, A., & Pathania, P. (2021). To study the impact of Google Classroom as a platform of learning and collaboration at the teacher education level. Education and Information Technologies, 26(1), 843-857.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10294-1

Johnson, D. (2010). Learning to teach: The influence of a university-school partnership project on pre-service elementary teachers’ efficacy for literacy instruction. Reading Horizons, 50(1), 23-48.https://core.ac.uk/down


Kaur, A., Hashim, R. A., & Noman, M. (2014). Teacher autonomy support: Does it hinder motivation among Thai students? Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 11, 171-189.


Kawinkoonlasate, P. (2020). Online language learning for Thai EFL learners: An analysis of effective alternative learning methods in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. English Language Teaching, 13(12), 15-26. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1279886.pdf

Lamb, T., & Reinders, H. (Eds.). (2008). Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts, realities, and responses (Vol. 1). John Benjamins.

Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23(2), 175-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(95)00006-6

Ma, K., Chutiyami, M., Zhang, Y., & Nicoll, S. (2021). Online teaching self-efficacy during COVID-19: Changes, its associated factors and moderators. Education and Information Technologies, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10486-3

Martinez, H. (2008). The subjective theories of student teachers: Implications for teacher education and research on learner autonomy. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts, realities, and responses (Vol. 1, pp. 103-124). John Benjamins.

McGrath, I. (2000). Teacher autonomy. In B. Sinclair, I McGrath, & T. Lamb (Eds.), Learner autonomy, teacher autonomy: Future directions (Vol. 1, pp. 100-110). Longman.

Milner, H. R. (2002). A case study of an experienced English teacher’s self-efficacy and persistence through “crisis” situations: Theoretical and practical considerations. The High School Journal, 86(1), 28-35. https://


Mills, N. (2011). Teaching assistants’ self‐efficacy in teaching literature: Sources, personal assessments, and consequences. The Modern Language Journal, 95(1), 61-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01145.x

Moradkhani, S., Raygan, A., & Moein, M. S. (2017). Iranian EFL teachers’ reflective practices and self-efficacy: Exploring possible relationships. System, 65, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. system.2016.12.011

Morris, D. B., & Usher, E. L. (2011). Developing teaching self-efficacy in research institutions: A study of award-winning professors. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(3), 232-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.


O’Connor, C., & Joffe, H. (2020). Intercoder reliability in qualitative research: Debates and practical guidelines. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406919899220

Ramos, R. C. (2006). Considerations on the role of teacher autonomy. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, (8), 183-202. https://doi.org/10.14483/22487085.10510

Rovinelli, R. J., & Hambleton, R. K. (1977). On the use of content specialists in the assessment of criterion-referenced test item validity. Dutch Journal of Educational Research, (2), 49-60. https://files.eric.ed.gov/


Smith, R. C. (2000). Starting with ourselves: Teacher-learner autonomy in language learning. In B. Sinclair, I McGrath & T. Lamb (Eds.), Learner autonomy, teacher autonomy: Future directions (pp. 89-99). Longman.

Smith, R. C. (2003). Teacher education for teacher-learner autonomy. Symposium for Language Teacher Educators: Papers from Three IALS Symposia. http://homepages.warwick.ac.uk/~elsdr/Teacher_autonomy.pdf

Trent, J. (2013). From learner to teacher: Practice, language, and identity in a teaching practicum. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 41(4), 426-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2013.838621

Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202-248. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543068002202

Turner, R. C., & Carlson, L. (2003). Indexes of item-objective congruence for multidimensional items. International Journal of Testing, 3(2), 163-171. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327574IJT0302_5

White, C. (2007). Innovation and identity in distance language learning and teaching. International Journal of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 97-110. https://doi.org/10.2167/illt45.0

Wyatt, M. (2013). Overcoming low self-efficacy beliefs in teaching English to young learners. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 26(2), 238-255.https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2011.605082

Xu, Y., & Wong, H. (2011). School-based curriculum development in China: Policy analysis, theoretical controversy, and practical exploration. Chinese Education & Society, 44(4), 44-63. https://doi.org/10.2753/CED1061-1932440403