The Khunolay and Muealay Cliff Stones: The Roles of Oral Literature and Natural Folk Objects Reflecting the Worldviews of Pga K’nyau People at Kosotha Village in Mae Chan Sub-District, Umphang District, Tak Province

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Hathaiphat Damkham
Wanna Numun


            This research aims to study the oral literature “Khunolay Muealay” found to be related to the Khunolay and Muealay cliff stones, which are considered as natural folk objects. The roles of the oral literature and the cliff stones incredibly reflect the prominent worldviews of the Pga K’nyau hill tribe at Kosotha Village in Mae Chan Sub-district, Umphang District, Tak Province, Thailand.In conducting this qualitative research, descriptive analysis was used to present the findings and the concept of roles of oral literature in natural folk objects was also adopted as the framework of this study. With regard to the findings, the oral literature “Khunolay Muealay” and the cliff stones considered as natural folk objects are two significant elements that reveal four worldviews of the Pga K’nyau hill tribe. The first worldview reveals that Pga K’nyau people admire the love that their ancestors, Khunolay and Muealay, had for each other. The second worldview reflects their respect for the forest, particularly where the cliff stones stand. In other words, they believe that the area is sacred and therefore should never be invaded. The third worldview represents their worship of nature-related gods believed to be present in the forest and the cliff stone area, whereas the last worldview reveals that Pga K’nyau people are immensely proud of their identity and roots


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Damkham, H., & Numun, W. (2020). The Khunolay and Muealay Cliff Stones: The Roles of Oral Literature and Natural Folk Objects Reflecting the Worldviews of Pga K’nyau People at Kosotha Village in Mae Chan Sub-District, Umphang District, Tak Province. Journal of Liberal Arts Prince of Songkla University, 12(2), 78-97. Retrieved from
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