• Wang Gao International College, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)
  • Zhongwu LI International College, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)
  • Chih-Cheng Fang (Francis) International College, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)


Cross-National Communication Barriers, Personal Emotion, Encoding, Decoding


This research is to explore influence of communicators’ personal emotion on cross-national communication barriers through mediating variables of messages’ encoding, decoding, and transmitting. Numbers of companies’ employees within The Eastern Economic Corridor (EEC) zone of Thailand provided 516 questionnaire papers as the data resources for this research. Under the analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Modeling), this research has found that personal emotion indirectly affects the strength of the cross-national communication barriers through encoding and decoding. Transmitting of messages is useless in the sense of how much the emotion would be influenced on the cross-national communication barriers. Noticeably, encoding of messages plays the most important role in diminishing the strength of cross-national communication barriers. With respect to diminish the strength of the cross-national communication barriers, communicators, who will be communicating with foreigners, need to develop their capability of messages’ encoding and appropriately adjust their personal emotion. Some forms of the expression of proper emotion can improve the capability of messages’ encoding for diminishing the strength of cross-national communication barriers. On the contrary, improper expression of emotion will likely pose a threat on decoding massage to cause cross-national communication barriers.


Download data is not yet available.


Adler, R. B. (2006). Interplay: the Process of Interpersonal Communication: Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

Aiken, L. R. (1997). Psychological testing and assessment. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Austin, K., & Anderson, W. (2010). Faith, friendship and learning: intercultural communication in the Republic of Letters. Language and Intercultural Communication, 10(1), 17-31.

Barker, G. G. (2016). Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Intercultural Communication Competence. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 45(1), 13-30. doi:10.1080/17475759.2015.1104376

Berlo, D. K. (1960). The process of communication; an introduction to theory and practice. New York, Holt: Rinehart and Winston.

Campos, J. J., Campos, R. G., & Barrett, K. C. (1989). Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotion regulation. Developmental psychology, 25(3), 394.

Chen, J. (2007). Strategies for Abating Intercultural Noise in Interpreting. Meta, 52(3), 529-541.

Cheney, G., Christensen, L. T., Zorn, T. E., & Ganesh, S. (2010). Organizational communication in an age of globalization: Issues, reflections, practices. Vancouver, B.C.: Langara College.

Clampitt, P. G. (2012). Communicating for managerial effectiveness. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Colman, A. M. (2015). A dictionary of psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cooper, A., & Petrides, K. (2010). A psychometric analysis of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire–Short Form (TEIQue–SF) using item response theory. Journal of personality assessment, 92(5), 449-457.

Czerwionka, L., Artamonova, T., & Barbosa, M. (2015). Intercultural knowledge development: Evidence from student interviews during short-term study abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 49, 80-99.

Damasio, A. R. (1998). Emotion in the perspective of an integrated nervous system. Brain research reviews, 26(2-3), 83-86.

Dewey, J. (1997). How we think. Eastford, CT: Martino Publishing.

Dodd, C. H. (1995). Dynamics of intercultural communication. Dubuque, Iowa ; London: Wm. C. Brown.

Durham, M. G., & Kellner, D. M. (2009). Media and cultural studies: Keyworks. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Eisenberg, E. M., Goodall, H. L., & Trethewey, A. (2013). Organizational communication: balancing creativity and constraint. London: Macmillan Higher Education.

Farnsworthh K. (2021). Challenges in Intercultural Communication. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 51(5), 999–1008.

Ferguson, S. D., & Terrion, J. L. (2014). Communication in everyday life: Personal and professional contexts. Brantford, Ont. : W. Ross MacDonald School Resource Services Library.

Fetscher, D. (2013). The in-depth interview as a research tool for investigating the online intercultural communication of Asian Internet users in relation to ethics in intercultural research. Language and Intercultural Communication, 13(1), 78-94. doi:10.1080/14708477.2012.748791

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions?. Review of general psychology : journal of Division 1, of the American Psychological Association, 2(3), 300–319.

Gibb, J. R. (1960a). Defense level and influence potential in small groups. Washington, D.C.: National Training Laboratories.

Gibb, J. R. (1960b). Sociopsychological Processes of Group Instruction. Teachers College Record, 61(10), 115–135.

Gibb, J. R. (1961). Defensive communication. Journal of Communication, 11(3), 141-148.

Giri, V. N. (2009). Nonverbal Communication Theories. In S. W. Littlejohn, & K. A. Foss (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Communication Theory (pp. 690-694). New York: Sage Publication.

Gudykunst, W. B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. New York: Sage Publication.

Henderson, S., Barker, M., & Mak, A. (2016). Strategies used by nurses, academics and students to overcome intercultural communication challenges. Nurse Education in Practice, 16(1), 71-78. doi:

Huang, H., & Chen, Z. (2021). Development of E-Commerce Based on Digital Information Technology. In International Conference on Machine Learning and Big Data Analytics for IoT Security and Privacy, 6(1), 247-253.

Hulbert, J. E. (1994). Overcoming Intercultural Communication Barriers. Bulletin of the Association for Business Communication, 57(1), 41-44.

Inc, P. H. (2018). communication barriers.

Jandt, F. E. (2017). An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community. New York: Sage Publications.

Jwa, S. (2017). Facework among L2 speakers: a close look at intercultural communication. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(6), 517-529.

Keyton, J., & Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2009). Case studies for organizational communication: Understanding communication processes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kim, Y. Y. E. (1986). Interethnic communication: current research. New York: Sage Publications.

Koegel, L. K., Bryan, K. M., Su, P. L., Vaidya, M., & Camarata, S. (2020). Definitions of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal in Research for Autism: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 50(8), 2957–2972.

Kotian, N., Subramanian, E. M. G., & Mathew, M. (2020). Language, a communication barrier in pediatric dentistry? - A questionnaire-based survey. Drug Invention Today, 14(5), 697–701.

Kowner, R. (2002). Japanese communication in intercultural encounters: the barrier of status-related behavior. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(4), 339-361.

Lieberman, D. A., & Gamst, G. (2015). Intercultural communication competence revisited: Linking the intercultural and multicultural fields. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48(6), 17-19.

Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2013). Intercultural communication in contexts. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

McQuail, D. (1987). Mass communication theory: An introduction. New York: Sage Publications.

Mesquita, B., & Frijda, N. H. (1992). Cultural variations in emotions: a review. Psychological bulletin, 112(2), 179.

Miller, J. G. (1965). Living systems: Basic concepts. Behavioral science, 10(3), 193-237.

Murphy, K. R. (2014). A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed?. Hoboken : Taylor and Francis.

Nadeem, M. U., & Koschmann, M. A. (2021). Does mindfulness moderate the relationship between anxiety, uncertainty, and intercultural communication effectiveness of the students in Pakistan?. Current Psychology, 1-13. DOI:10.1007/s12144-021-01429-9

Palm, J., & Backman, F. (2020). Energy efficiency in SMEs: overcoming the communication barrier. Energy Efficiency, 809-821.

Park, E.-k., & Song, M. (2005). Communication barriers perceived by older patients and nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42(2), 159-166.

Presbitero, A., & Attar, H. (2018). Intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural intelligence and knowledge sharing: Extending anxiety-uncertainty management theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 67, 35-43.

Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. K. (2017). Management. Boston, Mass.; London: Pearson.

Robinson, W. P., & Giles, H. (1990). Handbook of language and social psychology. Chichester: Wiley.

Rothwell, J. D. (2010). In the company of others: an introduction to communication. New York: Oxford University Press.

Samovar, L., Porter, R., McDaniel, E., & Roy, C. (2015). Intercultural Communication A Reader-Cengage Learning. USA: Cengage Learning.

Schacter, D. L. (2011). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Schram, W. E. (1954). The process and effects of mass communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Severin, W. J., & Tankard, J. W. (2001). Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson.

Shin, J. (2013). Intercultural communication. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16(6), 750-754.

Tang, C. M., & Bradshaw, A. (2020). Instant messaging or face-to-face? How choice of communication medium affects team collaboration environments. E-learning and digital media, 17(2), 111-130.

Taylor, S. E. (1965). Eye movements in reading: Facts and fallacies. American Educational Research Journal, 2(4), 187-202.

Vuckovic, A. (2008). Inter‐cultural communication: a foundation of communicative action. Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, 2(1), 47-59.

Yoshida, T., Yashiro, K., & Suzuki, Y. (2013). Intercultural communication skills: What Japanese businesses today need. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(1), 72-85.




How to Cite

GAO, W.; LI, Z. .; FANG (FRANCIS), C.-C. . The INFLUENCE OF PERSONAL EMOTION ON CROSS-NATIONAL COMMUNICATION BARRIERS; THE ENCODING, DECODING AND TRANSMITTING OF MESSAGES AS MEDIATING VARIABLES. RMUTT Global Business and Economics Review, Pathum Thani, Thailand, v. 17, n. 1, p. 135–153, 2022. Disponível em: Acesso em: 25 sep. 2022.



Research Articles