Cognitive Strategies and Learning Styles of High and Low Performance of Elementary School Students


  • Angela D. Lomagdong Department of Education Culture and Sport - Deped Northern Samar Division, Philippines


Cognitive strategies, Learning styles, Students’ performance, Teaching strategy


This study investigated the role of cognitive strategies and learning styles in the academic performance of elementary pupils. The study made use of the descriptive correlational research design. A total of 285 pupils were randomly selected from a population of 1147 pupils using the Slovene’s Formula for Sample Size Determination. Standard validated questionnaires were adapted and used in data gathering. The results revealed that at higher grade levels, high performing pupils tend to use cognitive strategies more than low performing pupils, and therefore produced a very satisfactory academic performance compared to low performing pupils. The results further indicated that high performing pupils learn best by remembering, organizing, and looking for assistance, and they use these strategies naturally. They also seek help when they find difficulties in their studies, and constantly monitor their progress. Moreover, low performing students prefer to learn with musical background whereas high performing pupils prefer to study in a quiet room. High performing pupils love solving puzzles and similar activities which low performing pupils do not appreciate. Likewise, they move a lot compared to low performing pupils. They learn best in mobile activities and are more adept in the use of language as a tool in learning and have higher visual ability compared to low performing pupils. It is therefore suggested that teachers should identify the learning-style preferences of the pupils so that selection of appropriate instructional methods and materials could maximize pupils’ learning.


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How to Cite

D. Lomagdong, A. (2023). Cognitive Strategies and Learning Styles of High and Low Performance of Elementary School Students. Journal of Multidisciplinary in Social Sciences, 16(2), 57–66. Retrieved from



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