Anxiety Levels and Coping Strategies in Indonesian General Population During Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic

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Indri Yunita Suryaputri
Rofingatul Mubasyiroh
Tri Wurisastuti


This study aims to determine the anxiety-related coping strategies used by the general population in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted online in 34 Indonesian provinces on May 2–4, 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 2189 respondents aged 15-year-olds and older participated in this study. The Lime survey application platform and social media distributed the questionnaires. Multiple multinomial logistic analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of coping activities with anxiety levels after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, and homeownership. Moderate and severe anxiety was more experienced by respondents aged 15–24 years, were female, not/unmarried, had middle-high education, were getting layoff, and lived in an employer-provided residence. Spiritual activity (aOR = 0.30; 95% CI [0.10, 0.87]; p = .027), physical activities (aOR = 0.28; 95% CI [0.16, 0.50]; p < .001), and leisure activities (aOR = 0.25; 95% CI [0.14, 0.46]; p < .001) provided the best protection against severe anxiety. In contrast, those who smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol were more likely to experience mild-to-severe anxiety (aOR = 2.77; 95% CI [1.1, 6.64]; p = .022). Interestingly, those who shared their problems with others were more likely to experience mild anxiety (OR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.52, 2.58]; p < .001). Spiritual, physical, and leisure activities are expected to be associated with mild, moderate, and severe anxiety. Promoting physical, leisure, and spiritual activities plays a vital role in the community as a coping strategy for stressful times, especially during pandemics.

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Suryaputri, I. Y., Mubasyiroh, R., & Wurisastuti, T. (2023). Anxiety Levels and Coping Strategies in Indonesian General Population During Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 31, 814–831. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biography

Indri Yunita Suryaputri, Health Research Organization, National Research and Innovation Agency of the Republic of Indonesia

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