Under-Utilization of Maternal-Child Healthcare Services and Adverse Outcomes of Unwanted Pregnancies in Urban and Rural Areas of Indonesia

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Yunisa Astiarani
Giovani I.G. Putri
Nur Fitriah
Felicia Kurniawan


The study examines the association of unwanted pregnancy and the utilization of maternal-child health services, and the adverse health outcomes in urban and rural settings. The study employed data from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey that included 13,806 live births; the mothers were not pregnant at the interview and were married participants. The multiple logistic regression analysis concerning residential areas was conducted separately to compare outcomes related to unwanted pregnancy. Non-standard antenatal care visits (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2–2.4), prolonged labor (AOR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2–2.1), the absence of child’s birth documentation (AOR=1.3; 95% CI=1.0–1.6), and smaller baby size (AOR=1.2; 95% CI=1.0–1.4) are associated with unwanted pregnancy in urban areas. In rural settings, on the other hand, unwanted pregnancy is associated with non-standard antenatal care (AOR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2–2.2). Therefore, in Indonesia, urban areas lack maternal-child healthcare services utilization and higher adverse events due to unwanted pregnancy than rural areas. An adjustment approach is required in maternal-child health-related programs in both areas, particularly for women living in urban.


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Author Biography

Yunisa Astiarani, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

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