The Reasons for the Absence of Aging Policies in Indonesian Universities: A Case Study of Two Fully Autonomous Public Universities

Main Article Content

Adityo Pratikno Ramadhan
Suzyrman Sibly
Hamoon Khelghat-Doost

Abstract

In 2019, more than 27% of academic staff at Indonesian public universities were over 60, suggesting the importance of clearly stated policies on aging in these institutions. However, an aging policy is still absent in public universities. Thus, the purpose of this study is to ascertain why Indonesian public universities lack a distinct policy for their older academic staff. An exploratory qualitative approach was employed in this study. Two fully autonomous and well-known public universities in Indonesia were chosen as case studies. The selected members of top management of these universities comprising the rector, vice-rectors, and directors were individually interviewed. The result of the study revealed that these institutions do not have a specified aging policy. The result also highlighted eight reasons why public universities do not have an aging policy in their institution. The study suggests further investigation of the reasons for the absence of aging policies in Indonesian universities are carried out using a large sample size within fully autonomous public universities, non-fully autonomous public universities, and private universities to delve deeper into the reasons for the absence of an aging policy.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biography

Suzyrman Sibly, Centre for Global Sustainability Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

Corresponding author

References

• Adioetomo, S. M., & Mujahid, G. (2014, July). Indonesia on the threshold of population ageing (H. Posselt, Ed.; UNFPA Indonesia Monograph Series, No. 1). United Nations Population Fund. https://indonesia.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/BUKU_Monograph_No1_Ageing_03_Low-res.pdf

• Agustina, R., Dartanto, T., Sitompul, R., Susiloretni, K. A., Suparmi, Achadi, E. L., Taher, A., Wirawan, F., Sungkar, S., Sudarmono, P., Shankar, A. H., Thabrany, H., Susiloretni, K. A., Soewondo, P., Ahmad, S. A., Kurniawan, M., Hidayat, B., Pardede, D., Mundiharno, … Khusun, H. (2019). Universal health coverage in Indonesia: Concept, progress, and challenges. The Lancet, 393(10166), 75–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31647-7

• Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS - Statistics Indonesia). (2021). Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2020 [Elderly Population Statistic 2020]. https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2020/12/21/0fc023221965624a644c1111/statistik-penduduk-lanjut-usia-2020.html

• Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social science research: Principles, methods, and practices. (2nd edition). Global Text Project. https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/oa_textbooks/3/

• Bloom, D. E., Chatterji, S., Kowal, P., Lloyd-Sherlock, P., McKee, M., Rechel, B., Rosenberg, L., & Smith, J. P. (2015). Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses. The Lancet, 385(9968), 649–657. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61464-1

• Boudiny, K. (2013). ‘Active ageing’: From empty rhetoric to effective policy tool. Ageing and Society, 33(6), 1077–1098. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X1200030X

• Boulton-Lewis, G. M., & Buys, L. (2014). Older academics: Motivation to keep working. World Journal of Education, 4(6), 66–77. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v4n6p66

• Chan, A. S. (2005). Policy discourses and changing practice: Diversity and the university-college. Higher Education, 50(1), 129–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-004-6351-3

• deLeon, P., & Vogenbeck, D. M. (2007). The policy sciences at the crossroads. In F. Fischer, G. J. Miller, & M. S. Sidney (Eds.), Handbook of public policy analysis: Theory, politics and methods (pp. 3–14). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315093192

• Denhardt, J. V, & Denhardt, R. B. (2007). The new public service; Serving, not steering (Expanded ed.). M.E. Sharpe.

• Dennis, W. J., Jr. (2011). Entrepreneurship, small business and public policy levers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(2), 149–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2011.00319.x

• Donini, L. M., Scardella, P., Piombo, L., Neri, B., Asprino, R., Proietti, A. R., Carcaterra, S., Cava, E., Cataldi, S., Cucinotta, D., Di Bella, G., Barbagallo, M., & Morrone, A. (2013). Malnutrition in elderly: Social and economic determinants. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17(1), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-012-0374-8

• Earl, C., Taylor, P., & Cannizzo, F. (2018). “Regardless of age”: Australian university managers’ attitudes and practices towards older academics. Work, Aging and Retirement, 4(3), 300–313. https://doi.org/10.1093/workar/wax024

• Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2012). The use of happiness research for public policy. Social Choice and Welfare, 38(4), 659–674. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00355-011-0629-z

• Gaus, N., & Hall, D. (2015). Neoliberal governance in Indonesian universities: The impact upon academic identity. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 35(9/10), 666–682. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-12-2014-0120

• George, R., & Maguire, M. (2020). Including older academics in the English university: A matter of social justice. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1858980

• Giang, L. T., & Pfau, W. D. (2009). Vulnerability of Vietnamese elderly to poverty: Determinants and policy implications. Asian Economic Journal, 23(4), 419–437. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8381.2009.02022.x

• Hill, M. M. Y. S., Yorgason, J. B., Nelson, L. J., & Miller, R. B. (2021). Social withdrawal and psychological well-being in later life: Does marital status matter? Aging and Mental Health, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2021.1950620

• Hutchings, K., Wilkinson, A., & Brewster, C. (2020). Ageing academics do not retire - they just give up their administration and fly away: A study of continuing employment of older academic international business travellers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2020.1754882

• Larkin, J., & Neumann, R. (2012). Ageing academics: Workforce priorities for universities. International Journal of Employment Studies, 20(1), 3–24. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/ielapa.891595916444219

• Loretto, W., & Vickerstaff, S. (2015). Gender, age and flexible working in later life. Work, Employment and Society, 29(2), 233–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017014545267

• Mark, G., & Smith, A. P. (2012). Effects of occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and attributional style on the mental health and job satisfaction of university employees. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25(1), 63–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2010.548088

• Melin, M., Astvik, W., & Bernhard-Oettel, C. (2014). New work demands in higher education. A study of the relationship between excessive workload, coping strategies and subsequent health among academic staff. Quality in Higher Education, 20(3), 290–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/13538322.2014.979547

• Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education. (2016). Statistik Pendidikan Tinggi 2014/2015 [Higher Education Statistics 2014/2015]. https://www.brin.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/E-Book-Statistik-Pendidikan-Tinggi-2014-2015-revisi-cover-1.pdf

• Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education. (2018). Statistik Pendidikan Tinggi 2018 [Indonesia Higher Education Statistical Year Book 2018]. https://pddikti.kemdikbud.go.id/asset/data/publikasi/Statistik%20Pendidikan%20Tinggi%20Indonesia%202018.pdf

• Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education. (2019). Statistik Pendidikan Tinggi 2019 [Higher Education Statistics 2019]. https://pddikti.kemdikbud.go.id/asset/data/publikasi/Statistik%20Pendidikan%20Tinggi%20Indonesia%202019.pdf

• Ng, K. H. (2011). Review essay: Prospects for old-age income security in Hong Kong and Singapore. Journal of Population Ageing, 4(4), 271–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-011-9051-7

• OECD, & Asian Development Bank. (2015). Education in Indonesia: Rising to the challenge. OECD Publishing. https://www.oecd.org/indonesia/education-in-indonesia-9789264230750-en.htm

• Pal, S., & Palacios, R. (2011). Understanding poverty among the elderly in India: Implications for social pension policy. The Journal of Development Studies, 47(7), 1017–1037. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2010.509783

• Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, Nomor 43 Tahun 2004, Tentang Pelaksanaan Upaya Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Sosial Lanjut Usia [Regulation of the Government of The Republic of Indonesia (PP) Number 43 of 2004 (43/2004) Concerning Implementation of Efforts to Improve the Social Well-Being of the Elderly]. (2004). https://jdihn.go.id/files/4/2004pp043.pdf

• Rantanen, T. (2013). Promoting Mobility in Older people. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 46(Suppl 1), 50–54. https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.S.S50

• Rosso, A. L., Taylor, J. A., Tabb, L. P., & Michael, Y. L. (2013). Mobility, disability, and social engagement in older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(4), 617–637. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264313482489

• Sandy, W., & Shen, H. (2019). Publish to earn incentives: How do Indonesian professors respond to the new policy? Higher Education, 77(2), 247–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0271-0

• Scientific Software Development. (2020). ATLAS.ti (Version 9.1.3.0). https://atlasti.com/product/whats-new-in-atlas-ti-9/

• Shires, M. (2004). Public Policy. In D. Schultz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of public administration and public policy (pp. 350–351). Facts On File.

• Stenner, P., McFarquhar, T., & Bowling, A. (2011). Older people and ‘active ageing’: Subjective aspects of ageing actively. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(3), 467–477. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105310384298

• Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia, Nomor 13 Tahun 1998, Tentang Kesejahteraan Lanjut Usia [Law of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 13 of 1998, about Elderly Welfare]. (1998). http://www.bphn.go.id/data/documents/98uu013.pdf

• United Nations. (2019). World Population Ageing 2019: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/430). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WorldPopulationAgeing2019-Highlights.pdf

• Walker, A., & Maltby, T. (2012). Active ageing: A strategic policy solution to demographic ageing in the European Union. International Journal of Social Welfare, 21(s1), 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2012.00871.x

• World Bank Group. (2019, May). Approach Paper World Bank Support to Aging Countries. http://ieg.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/Data/reports/ap_agingcountries.pdf

• World Bank (Jakarta). (2014, June). Tertiary education in Indonesia: Directions for policy (89301). https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/20024/893010WP0P12940olicy0Paper0June2014.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

• World Health Organization. (2015). World Report on Ageing and Health. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/186463