The Association Between Physical Activity and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults

Main Article Content

I Putu Agus Dharma Hita
B.M. Wara Kushartanti
Elsa Ariestika
Emmanuel Nizeyumukiza


Although there is substantial evidence on the association between physical activity and self-rated health among older adults globally, there is a paucity of findings on this topic for the aging Indonesian population. The present study was conducted to investigate the association between self-reported physical activity and self-rated health among older adults in Indonesia. The data used were from the fifth wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). A multilevel regression approach was used for analysis. A sample of 1,813 older adults (aged 60 and over) within 311 communities was used in the study. Self-reported physical activity measured by time spent walking was the independent variable, and self-rated health was the dependent variable. The analysis was adjusted for gender, age, education level, marital status, religiosity, retirement status, neighborhood safety, extroversion, and subjective poverty. The results revealed that increased physical activity was consistently associated with better self-rated health in both unadjusted (β=0.04, p<0.05) and adjusted (β=0.06, p<0.01) models. To improve public health in Indonesia, primary health care professionals, health policymakers, and other health promoters should consider including physical activity in health policies and encourage older individuals to engage in regular physical activity.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hita, I. P. A. D., Kushartanti, B. W., Ariestika, E., Widiyanto, & Nizeyumukiza, E. (2021). The Association Between Physical Activity and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 29(-), 450 - 458. Retrieved from
Author Biography

Emmanuel Nizeyumukiza, Université des Grands Lacs, Burundi

Corresponding author


• Abu-Omar, K., Rütten, A., & Robine, J. M. (2004). Self-rated health and physical activity in the European Union. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin/Social and Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 235–242.
• Adioetomo, S. M., & Mujahid, G. (2014). Indonesia on the threshold of population ageing. UNFPA Indonesia.
• Arifin, E. N., Braun, K. L., & Hogervorst, E. (2012). Three pillars of active ageing in Indonesia. Asian Population Studies, 8(2), 207-230.
• Arnadottir, S. A., Gunnarsdottir, E. D., Stenlund, H., & Lundin-Olsson, L. (2011). Determinants of self-rated health in old age: A population-based, cross-sectional study using the International Classification of Functioning. BMC Public Health, 11, 1–38.
• Barnett, K., Mercer, S. W., Norbury, M., Watt, G., Wyke, S., & Guthrie, B. (2012). Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet, 380(9836), 37–43.
• Basso, J. C., & Suzuki, W. A. (2017). The Effects of acute exercise on mood, cognition, neurophysiology, and neurochemical pathways : A review. Brain Plasticity, 2(2), 127–152.
• Beyer, A. K., Wolff, J. K., Warner, L. M., Schüz, B., & Wurm, S. (2015). The role of physical activity in the relationship between self-perceptions of ageing and self-rated health in older adults. Psychology and Health, 30(6), 671–685.
• Cimarras-Otal, C., Calderón-Larrañaga, A., Poblador-Plou, B., González-Rubio, F., Gimeno-Feliu, L. A., Arjol-Serrano, J. L., & Prados-Torres, A. (2014). Association between physical activity, multimorbidity, self-rated health and functional limitation in the Spanish population. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1–10.
• Damian, J., Ruigomez, A., Pastor, V., & Martin-Moreno, J. M. (1999). Determinants of self assessed health among Spanish older people living at home. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 53(7), 412–416.
• DeSalvo, K. B., Bloser, N., Reynolds, K., He, J., & Muntner, P. (2006). Mortality prediction with a single general self-rated health question: A meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(3), 267–275.
• Galán, I., Meseguer, C. M., Herruzo, R., & Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2010). Self-rated health according to amount, intensity and duration of leisure time physical activity. Preventive Medicine, 51(5), 378–383.
• Hibino, Y., Takaki, J., Ogino, K., Kambayashi, Y., Hitomi, Y., Shibata, A., & Nakamura, H. (2012). The relationship between social capital and self-rated health in a Japanese population : a multilevel analysis. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 17, 44–52.
• Hu, F. B., Sigal, R. J., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Colditz, G. A., Solomon, C. G., Willett, W. C., Speizer, F. E., & Manson, J. E. (1999). Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of Type 2 Diabetes in women: A prospective study. JAMA, 282(15), 1433–1439.
• Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38(1), 21–37.
• Ihaka, R., & Gentleman, R. (1996). R: A language for data analysis and graphics. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 5(3), 299–314.
• Kadar, K. S., Francis, K., & Sellick, K. (2013). Ageing in Indonesia - Health status and challenges for the future. Ageing International, 38(4), 261–270.
• Kaplan, G., Lazarus, N., Cohen, R., & Leu, D. (1991). Psychosocial factors in the natural history of physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 7(1), 12–17.
• Kerr, J., Sallis, J. F., Saelens, B. E., Cain, K. L., Conway, T. L., Frank, L. D., & King, A. C. (2012). Outdoor physical activity and self rated health in older adults living in two regions of the U.S. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 89.
• Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2017). lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models. Journal of Statistical Software, 82(13), 1-26.
• Lee, H. Y., Kim, J., & Merighi, J. R. (2015). Physical activity and self-rated health status among older adult cancer survivors: Does intensity of activity play a role? Oncology Nursing Forum, 42(6), 614–624.
• Liangruenrom, N., Craike, M., Biddle, S. J. H., Suttikasem, K., & Pedisic, Z. (2019). Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the Thai population: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1–26.
• Mailund, T. (2019). Manipulating Data Frames: dplyr. In R Data Science Quick Reference (pp. 109–160). Apress.
• Neufeld, S., Machacova, K., Mossey, J., & Luborsky, M. (2013). Walking ability and its relationship to self-rated health in later life. Clinical Gerontologist, 36(1), 17–32.
• Parkatti, T., Deeg, D. J. H., Bosscher, R. J., & Launer, L. L. J. (1998). Physical activity and self-rated health among 55- to 89-year-old Dutch people. Journal of Aging and Health, 10(3), 311–326.
• Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less : A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 203–212.
• Romo-Perez, V., Souto, D., & Mota, J. (2016). Walking, body mass index, and self-rated health in a representative sample of Spanish adults. Cadernos de Saúde Publica, 32(1), 1–10.
• Simbolon, D., Siregar, A., & Talib, R. A. B. D. (2020). Prevention and control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia through the modification of physiological factors and physical activities. Kesmas: National Public Health Journal, 15(3), 120–127.
• Strauss, J., Witoelar, F., & Sikoki, B. (2016). User’s Guide for the Indonesia Family Life Survey, Wave 5 (Vol. 2). RAND Corporation.
• Woodcock, J., Franco, O. H., Orsini, N., & Roberts, I. (2011). Non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(1), 121–138.
• World Health Organization. (2017, December 12). Mental health of older adults.