Main Article Content
This mixed-methods study aimed to examine the current situation of the enforcement of laws for the employment of persons with disabilities (PWDs), and the difference in perspectives between PWDs and employers in Thailand. Results showed that there were only 8% of PWDs employed in competitive labor markets. The most relevant jobs from the employer’s perspectives for PWDs were unskilled labor. The majority of PWDs sought to be employed with essential support, including housing and transportation, in the mainstream open labor market. At the same time, employers were usually more concerned about particular approaches and accessible working environments for PWDs. Thus, this perspective gap was one reason for the low rate of employment of PWDs. In sum, there have been many challenges for the employment of PWDs in Thailand. Ways to improve career development for PWDs include the provision of suitable education and training, housing or dormitories located near workplaces, assistive technologies and reasonable accommodations in workplaces, and customized employment services for employed PWDs. Furthermore, positive attitudes, understanding, and collaboration between employers and PWDs should continuously be promoted.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
• Alcock, P. (2008). Social policy in Britain (Third edition). Palgrave Macmillan.
• Barnes, C. (1992). Disability and employment. Personnel Review, 21(6), 55-73. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483489210021080
• Baumberg, B, Jones, M., & Wass, V. (2015). Disability prevalence and disability-related employment gaps in the UK 1998-2012: Different trends in different surveys? Social Science & Medicine, 141, 72-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.07.012
• Blanck, P., & Adya, M. (2017). Future directions in employment, occupational rehabilitation, and disability: Introduction to the special section. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 27, 479–481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-017-9741-y
• Bualar, T. (2015). Employer dilemma over disability employment policy in Thailand. Journal of Public Affairs, 15(3), 231–236. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.1508
• Buescher, A. V. S., Cidav, Z., Knapp, M., & Mandell, D. S. (2014). Costs of autism spectrum disorders in the United Kingdom and the United States. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(8), 721-728. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.210
• Cheausuwantavee, T., & Suwansomrid, K. (2018). Disability law and policy in Thailand: An ideal and reality in the Past Decade. Journal of Ratchasuda College for Research and Development of Persons With Disabilities, 14(1), 87-103. https://rs.mahidol.ac.th/rs-journal/vol.14/007.pdf
• Chong, S. A., Vaingankar, J. A., Abdin, E., & Subramaniam, M. (2013). Mental disorders: employment and work productivity in Singapore. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(10), 117-123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0526-5
• Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEP). (2020). Statistics of employment for persons with disabilities 2020. https://dep.go.th/images/uploads/Downloads/pdf/25630331_1.pdf
• Gold, P. B., Fabian, E. S., & Luecking, R. G. (2013). Job acquisition by urban youth with disabilities transitioning from school to work. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 57(1), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/0034355213481248
• Gonzalez-Rabanal, M. C. M. C. (2012). Is it possible to avoid gender discrimination in employment pension plans and funds? The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 6(8), 113-124. https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v06i08/52128
• Griffin, C., Hammis, D., & Geary, T. (2007). The job developer's handbook: Practical tactics for customized employment. Brookes Publishing.
• Harvey, J, Szoc, R., Dela Rosa, M., Pohl, M., & Jenkins, J. (2013). Understanding the competencies needed to customize jobs: A competency model for customized employment. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 38(2), 77-89. https://doi.org/10.3233/JVR-130622
• Langer, R., & Ferguson, M. (2020). Stigma, discrimination, resilience, and support in members of a mental health consumer peer support organization. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences: Annual Review, 14(1), 23-34. https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v14i01/23-34
• Lantz, S., & Marston, G. (2012). Policy, citizenship and governance: The case of disability and employment policy in Australia. Disability & Society, 27(6), 853-867. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.686881
• Mani, S., Mitra, S., & Sambamoorthi, U. (2018). Dynamics in health and employment: Evidence from Indonesia. World Development, 104, 297–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.021
• Lee, M. N., Abdullah, Y., & Mey, S. C. (2011). Employment of people with disabilities in Malaysia: Drivers and inhibitors. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 112-124. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ921195.pdf
• Ministry of Labour. (2015). Employment for persons with disabilities. https://www.smartsme.co.th/content/230158
• Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS). (2014). Persons with disability and statistics. https://mgronline.com/qol/detail/9570000127096
• Mueser, K. T., Drake, R. E., & Bond, G. R. (2016). Recent advances in supported employment of people with serious mental illness. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(3), 196-201. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000247
• Nardodkar, R., Pathare, S., Ventriglio, A., Castaldelli-Maia, J., Javate, K. R., Torales, J., & Bhugra, D. (2016). Legal protection of the right to work and employment for persons with mental health problems: A review of legislation across the world. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(4), 375-384. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2016.1210575
• Office of the Council of State. (2007). Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities Act, B.E. 2550 (2007). http://law.m-society.go.th/law2016/uploads/lawfile/593114244ee36.pdf
• Reichard, A., Stransky, M., Brucker, D., & Houtenville, A. (2018). The relationship between employment and health care among working-age adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Disability and Rehabilitation, 41(19), 2299-2307. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2018.1465131
• Shier, M., Graham, J. R., & Jones, M. E. (2009). Barriers to employment as experienced by disabled people: A qualitative analysis in Calgary and Regina, Canada. Disability & Society, 24 (1), 63-75. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590802535485
• Small, S., de Boer, C., & Swab, M. (2015). Perceived barriers to and facilitators of labor market engagement for individuals with chronic physical illness in their experience with disability policy: A systematic review of qualitative evidence protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 13(12), 59-69. https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2015-2493
• United Nations. (2015). Disability and Employment. https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/resources/factsheet-on-persons-with-disabilities/disability-and-employment.html
• United Nations. (2018). UN Flagship Report on Disability and Sustainable Development Goals. https://social.un.org/publications/UN-Flagship-Report-Disability-Final.pdf
• United Nation. (2020). UNRIC Library Backgrounder: Disability. https://unric.org/en/wp-content/uploads/sites/15/2020/02/disability-eng.pdf
• von Schrader, S., & Nazarov, Z. E. (2015). Employer characteristics associated with discrimination charges under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 26(3), 153-163. https://doi.org/10.1177/1044207314533385
• Vornholt, K., Villotti, P., Muschalla, B., Bauer, J., Colella, A., Zijlstra, F., Van Ruitenbeek, G., Uitdewilligen, S., & Corbière, M. (2018). Disability and employment – overview and highlights. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 27(1), 40-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1387536
• World Health Organization. (2011). World Disability Report. WHO Press. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241564182
• Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An introductory analysis (3rd ed.). Harper and Row.
• Yell, M. L., Katsiyannis, A., & Prince, A. (2017). Sheltered workshops: United States vs. Rhode Island. Intervention in School and Clinic, 52(5), 311-314. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053451216630277