A Quantitative Text Analysis Approach on LGBTQ Issues in Contemporary Indonesia

Main Article Content

Hiroko Kinoshita


This paper seeks to clarify how the major online media reports Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning or Queer (LGBTQ) issues in contemporary Indonesia. LGBTQ issues are a dividing factor within the Muslim community of contemporary Indonesia. Indonesia, with the largest Muslim population, is suffocated with criticism against LGBTQ. Major debates on Indonesian LGBTQ issues in precedent literature are from the anthropological perspective, focusing on how individuals identify or recognize themselves in society, with little discussed from a quantitative point of view. Thus, this paper aims to clarify, by using quantitative text analysis, the tones of online media about LGBTQ issues among four major online media news agencies in Indonesia; Republika, Kompas, Detik, and Antara. Specifically, regression analysis, using the ordinary least squares (OLS) model, was applied to verify the hypotheses from LGBTQ-related article texts published in these major online media platforms. This analysis showed that it is not only Islamic media or national media fueling the negative reporting tone of LGBTQ issues, but also online media with the largest number of readers and visitors among Indonesians.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Author Biography

Hiroko Kinoshita, International Student Center, Kyushu University, Japan

Corresponding author


• Bank Indonesia. (2020). Inflation report. https://www.bi.go.id/en/moneter/inflasi/data/Default.aspx

• Bennet, L. R., & Davies, S. G. (Eds.). (2015). Sex and sexualities in contemporary Indonesia: Sex politics, health, diversity and representations. Routledge.

• Boellstorff, T. (2004). Playing back the nation: Waria, Indonesian transvestites. Cultural Anthropology, 19 (2), 159-195. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3651553

• Boellstorff, T. (2005). Between religion and desire: Being Muslim and gay in Indonesia. American Anthropologist, 107(4), 575-585. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3567376

• Boellstroff, T. (2016). Against State Straightism: Five principles for including LGBT Indonesians. E-International Relations. https://www.e-ir.info/2016/03/21/against-state-straightism-five-principles-for-including-lgbt-indonesians/

• Davies, S. G. (2018). Gender and sexual plurality in Indonesia. In Robert Hefner. (Ed). Handbook of Contemporary Indonesia (pp.281-311). Routledge.

• Detik News. (2015, March 3). Fatwa MUI: Pelaku Seks Menyimpang Bisa Dihukum Mati. Detik. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-2848289/fatwa-mui-pelaku-seks-menyimpang-bisa-dihukum-mati

• Detik News. (2015, July 2). Menteri Agama: Pernikahan Sesama Jenis Sulit Dilegalkan di Indonesia. Detik. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-2958666/menteri-agama-pernikahan-sesama-jenis-sulit-dilegalkan-di-indonesia

• Dipa, A. (2018, October 20). Gay couple arrested in Bandung as anti-LGBT wave grips Q. Java. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/10/20/gay-couple-arrested-in-bandung-as-anti-lgbt-wave-grips-w-java.html

• Hefner, R. W. (1997). Print Islam: Mass media and ideological revivals among Indonesian Muslims. Indonesia, 64, 77-104. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3351436

• Human Rights Watch. (2016). “These political games ruin our lives,” Indonesia’s LGBT community under threat. https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/08/10/these-political-games-ruin-our-lives/indonesias-lgbt-community-under-threat

• Human Rights Watch. (2017). “Indonesian religion Minister’s contradictory LGBT ‘Embrace’”. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/12/19/indonesian-religion-ministers-contradictory-lgbt-embrace

• Human Rights Watch. (2018). “Scared in public and now no privacy,” Human Rights and Public Health Impacts of Indonesia’s Anti-LGBT Moral Panic. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/indonesia0618_lgbt_web.pdf

• Ito, M. (2000). Calabai, Bissu, Bencong: Minami Sulawesi ni okeru Transgender. Jinbungakuho, 309, 83-109. (in Japanese)

• Jawa Pos. (2018, November 5). 10 Terduga Lesbian Ditangkap Satpol PP Padang. Jawa Pos. https://www.jawapos.com/jpg-today/05/11/2018/10-terduga-lesbian-ditangkap-satpol-pp-padang/

• Kume, I. (2013). Genin wo suiron suru: Seijibunseki houhou no susume. Yuuhikaku.

• Lim, M. (2012). the league of thirteen: Media concentration in Indonesia. Participatory Media Lab & The Ford Foundation. https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/51157-EN-the-league-of-thirteen-media-concentration-in-indonesia.pdf

• Majelis Ulama Indonesia. (2014), Lesbian, Gay, Sodomi, dan Pencabulan (Fatwa Majelis Ulama Indonesia Nomor 57 Tahun 2014). https://mui.or.id/wp-content/uploads/files/fatwa/Lesbian-Gay-Sodomi-dan-Pencabulan.pdf

• Mizuochi, M., & Hatano, T. (2017). Data bunseki wo master suru 12 no lesson. Yuhikaku.

• Okamoto, M. (2016). Minshuka shita Indonesia niokeru Transgender no soshikika to seijika, sono positive na paradox. Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, 9, 231-251. https://doi.org/10.14989/210327

• Paradana, B. Z. (2018). Fatwa in Indonesia: An analysis of dominant legal ideas and modes of thought of fatwa-making agencies and their implications in the post-new order period. Amsterdam University Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv157bk2

• Qanun Aceh. (2014). Qanun Aceh Nomor 6 Tahun 2014 Tentang Hukum Jinayat. https://www1-media.acehprov.go.id/uploads/Qanun_Aceh_Nomor_6_Tahun_2014_tentang_Hukum_Jinayat.pdf

• Romano, A., & Senior, B. (2005). Between dictatorship and democracy: State-affiliated news media in Indonesia. In Angela Romano and Michael Bromley (Eds.). Journalism and Democracy in Asia (pp.108-122).

• Saeki, N. (1997). Mass media under an authoritarian regime: A case study of Banning in June 1994 in Indonesia. Journal of Mass Communication, 51 (0), 138-153. (in Japanese) https://doi.org/10.24460/mscom.51.0_138

• Sen, K., & Hill, D. (2007). Media, culture and politics in Indonesia. Equinox Publishing.

• Setyadi, A. (2017, May 23). 5 Algojo Cambuk Pasangan Gay di Aceh di Depan Umum. Detik. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3509232/5-algojo-cambuk-pasangan-gay-di-aceh-di-depan-umum.

• Tadjoeddin, M. Z. (2012). Anatomy of social violence in the context of transition: The case of Indonesia, 1990 to 2001. Politics Administration and Change, 38, 1-35. https://ssrn.com/abstract=767344

• The Jakarta Post. (2016, February 17). MUI wants law to ban LGBT activities. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/02/17/mui-wants-law-ban-lgbt-activities.html.

• The Jakarta Post. (2016, August 2). LGBT people have right to live equally with others: Yenny Wahid. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/08/02/lgbt-people-have-right-to-live-equally-with-others-yenny-wahid.html