Social Capital and Mental Health among Older Adults in Indonesia: A Multilevel Approach

Main Article Content

Emmanuel Nizeyumukiza
Adi Cilik Pierewan
Edmond Ndayambaje
Yulia Ayriza

Abstract

In the social epidemiology field, social capital plays an important role as a determinant of a population’s mental health. Despite the vast number of studies on this issue, few have been conducted among the aging Indonesian population. This study is intended to investigate this association using a multilevel approach on a sample of 2,496 older adults. The data come from the 5th wave of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. The results revealed that taking into account cluster-specific random effects, social trust at the individual level predicted decreased depression among older adults only before adjusting for control variables. Neighborhood safety emerged as the only indicator of social capital that predicted reduced depression of elders after adjusting for control variables. In addition, high levels of poverty at the community level were associated with increased depression, and having completed senior high school, being healthy, and doing physical activity frequently were consistently associated with reduced depression across all models. In conclusion, living in a safe community with reduced levels of poverty might be protective factors against depression for older adults.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nizeyumukiza, E., Pierewan, A. C., Ndayambaje, E., & Ayriza, Y. (2020). Social Capital and Mental Health among Older Adults in Indonesia: A Multilevel Approach. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 29(-), 1 - 14. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jpss/article/view/237433
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Emmanuel Nizeyumukiza, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia

Corresponding author

References

• Alexopoulos, G. S. (2005). Depression in the elderly. Lancet, 365(9475), 1961–1970. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66665-2
• Andresen, E. M., Malmgren, J. A., Carter, W. B., & Patrick, D. L. (1994). Screening for depression in well older adults: Evaluation of a short form of the CES-D. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10(2), 77–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(18)30622-6
• Aneshensel, C. S. (1992). Social stress: Theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 15–38. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.000311
• Arifin, E. N., Braun, K. L., & Hogervorst, E. (2012). Three pillars of active ageing in Indonesia. Asian Population Studies, 8(2), 207-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2012.680334
• Baum, F. E., Ziersch, A. M., Zhang, G., & Osborne, K. (2009). Do perceived neighbourhood cohesion and safety contribute to neighbourhood differences in health? Health & Place, 15(4), 925–934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.02.013
• Burns, A., Dening, T., & Baldwin, R. (2001). Mental health problems. BMJ, 322, 789–791. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7289.789
• Cao, J., & Rammohan, A. (2016). Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3257-9
• Chang, K. F., & Weng, L.J. (2013). Screening for depressive symptoms among older adults in Taiwan: Cutoff of a short form of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale. Health, 5(3A), 588–594. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2013.53A078
• Chen, J., & Chen, S. (2014). Mental health effects of perceived living environment and neighborhood safety in urbanizing China. Habitat International, 46, 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.11.002
• Cromley, E. K., Wilson-Genderson, M., & Pruchno, R. A. (2012). Neighborhood characteristics and depressive symptoms of older people: Local spatial analyses. Social Science & Medicine, 75(12), 2307–2316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.08.033
• Das, J., Do, Q., Friedman, J., Mckenzie, D., & Scott, K. (2007). Mental health and poverty in developing countries: Revisiting the relationship. Social Science & Medicine, 65(3), 467–480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.02.037
• De Silva, M. J., McKenzie, K., Harpham, T., & Huttly, S. R. A. (2005). Social capital and mental illness: a systematic review. Epidemiol Community Health, 59, 619–627. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.029678
• Dohrenwend, B. P. (1990). Socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric disorders: Are the issues still compelling? Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 25(1), 41–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00789069
• Downey, L., & Van Willigen, M. (2005). Environmental Stressors: The mental health impacts of living near industrial activity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(3), 289-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650504600306
• Elavsky, S., & McAuley, E. (2007). Physical activity and mental health outcomes during menopause: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33(2), 132–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02879894
• Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., Steen, N., & Kalliomäki-Levanto, T. (2000). Organizational and individual factors affecting mental health and job satisfaction: A multilevel analysis of job control and personality. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(2), 269–277. https://doi.org/10.1037//1076-8998.5.2.269
• Fox, J., & Leanage, A. (2016). R and the Journal of Statistical Software. Journal of Statistical Software, 73(2). https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v073.i02
• GhorbaniAmir, H., AhmadiGatab, T., & Shayan, N. (2011). Relationship between Type A personality and mental health. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2010–2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.390
• Halliday, A. J., Kern, M. L., & Turnbull, D. A. (2019). Can physical activity help explain the gender gap in adolescent mental health? A cross-sectional exploration. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 16, 8-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2019.02.003
• Hanandita, W., & Tampubolon, G. (2014). Does poverty reduce mental health? An instrumental variable analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 113, 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.005
• Harpham, T., Grant, E., & Thomas, E. (2002). Measuring social capital within health surveys: Key issues. Health Policy and Planning, 17(1), 106–111. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/17.1.106
• Hibino, Y., Takaki, J., Ogino, K., Kambayashi, Y., Hitomi, Y., Shibata, A., & Nakamura, H. (2012). The relationship between social capital and self-rated health in a Japanese population: A multilevel analysis. Environ Health Prev Med, 17, 44–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12199-011-0218-x
• Hill, T. D., Ross, C. E., & Angel, R. J. (2005). Neighborhood disorder, psychophysiological distress, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(2), 170–186. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650504600204
• Kadar, K. S., Francis, K., & Sellick, K. (2013). Ageing in Indonesia - Health status and challenges for the future. Ageing International, 38, 261–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12126-012-9159-y
• Kivelä, S.L., & Pahkala, K. (1988). Clinician-rated symptoms and signs of depression in aged Finns. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 34(4), 274–284. https://doi.org/10.1177/002076408803400405
• Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2017). lmerTest package: Tests in linear mixed effects models. Journal of Statistical Software, 82(13), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v082.i13
• Lofors, J., & Sundquist, K. (2007). Low-linking social capital as a predictor of mental disorders: A cohort study of 4.5 million Swedes. Social Science and Medicine, 64(1), 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.024
• Loue, S. & Sajatovic, M. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health. Springer.
• Mackinnon, A., McCallum, J., Andrews, G., & Anderson, I. (1998). The center for epidemiological studies depression scale in older community samples in Indonesia, North Korea, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 53(6), 343–352. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/53b.6.p343
• Mahwati, Y. (2017). The relationship between spirituality and depression among the elderly in Indonesia. Makara Journal of Health Research, 21(1), 13–19. https://doi.org/10.7454/msk.v21i1.6206
• Mehrtash, S., & Ince, M. L. (2018). Perceived autonomy support and basic psychological needs of participants in a women’s health-related exercise programme according to exercise stage of change and exercise type. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 7(1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.26773/mjssm.180306
• Meyer, O. L., Castro-Schilo, L., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (2014). Determinants of mental health and self-rated health: A model of socioeconomic status, neighborhood safety, and physical activity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(9), 1734–1741. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302003
• Miller, D. L., Scheffler, R., Lam, S., Rosenberg, R., & Rupp, A. (2006). Social capital and health in Indonesia. World Development, 34(6), 1084–1098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.11.006
• Miller, W. C., Anton, H. A., & Townson, A. F. (2008). Measurement properties of the CESD scale among individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 48, 287–292. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.sc.3102127
• Mitchell, A. J., Rao, S., & Vaze, A. (2010). Do primary care physicians have particular difficulty identifying late-life depression? A meta-analysis stratified by age. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 79(5), 285–294. https://doi.org/10.1159/000318295
• Mitchell, C. U., & LaGory, M. (2002). Social capital and mental distress in an impoverished community. City and Community, 1(2), 199–222. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6040.00017
• Mui, A. C., & Yang, P. S. (2005). The foundations of gerontological social work practice in Taiwan. Taipei: Yeh Yeh Publishing House.
• Parra, D. C., Gomez, L. F., Sarmiento, O. L., Buchner, D., Brownson, R., Schimd, T., … Lobelo, F. (2020). Perceived and objective neighborhood environment attributes and health related quality of life among the elderly in Bogotá, Colombia. Social Science & Medicine, 70(7), 1070–1076. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.024
• Ramlagan, S., Peltzer, K., & Phaswana-Mafuya, N. (2013). Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. BMC Geriatrics, 13, 100. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-13-100
• Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41 (1), 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.02.001
• Rodda, J., Walker, Z., & Carter, J. (2011). Depression in older adults. Clinical Review, 343, 683–687. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5219
• Roh, S., Jang, Y., Chiriboga, D. A., Kwag, K. H., Cho, S., & Bernstein, K. (2011). Perceived neighborhood environment affecting physical and mental health: A study with Korean American older adults in New York City. J Immigrant Minority Health, 13, 1005–1012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-011-9492-3
• Saraceno, B., & Barbui, C. (1997). Poverty and mental illness. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42(3), 285–290. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674379704200306
• Stafford, M., De Silva, M., Stansfeld, S., & Marmot, M. (2008). Neighbourhood social capital and common mental disorder: Testing the link in a general population sample. Health and Place, 14(3), 394–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.08.006
• Steinmo, S., Hagger-Johnson, G., & Shahab, L. (2014). Bidirectional association between mental health and physical activity in older adults: Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Preventive Medicine, 66, 74–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.005
• Strauss, J., Witoelar, F., & Sikoki, B. (2016). User’ s guide for the Indonesia family life survey, Wave 5 (Vol. 2). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.https://doi.org/10.7249/WR1143.2
• Tambunan, T. (2005). Economic growth, appropriate policies and poverty reduction in a developing country: Some experience from Indonesia. South Asia Economic Journal, 6(1), 59-78. https://doi.org/10.1177/139156140500600104
• Tampubolon, G., & Hanandita, W. (2014). Poverty and mental health in Indonesia. Social Science & Medicine, 106, 20–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.012
• Van Eeuwijk, P. (2015). Old-age vulnerability, ill-health and care support in urban areas of Indonesia. Ageing and Society, 26(1), 61–80. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X05004344
• Wilson-Genderson, M., & Pruchno, R. (2013). Effects of neighborhood violence and perceptions of neighborhood safety on depressive symptoms of older adults. Social Science & Medicine, 85, 43–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.028
• Won, J., Lee, C., Forjuoh, S.N., & Ory, M.G. (2016). Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults’ health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review. Social Science & Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.07.024
• World Health Organization. (2016). Mental health and older adults. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs381/en/#.
• Wu, Q., Lu, D., & Kang, M. (2014). Social capital and the mental health of children in rural China with different experiences of parental migration. Social Science & Medicine, 132, 270-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.050
• Yip, W., Subramanian, S. V., Mitchell, A. D., Lee, D. T. S., Wang, J., & Kawachi, I. (2007). Does social capital enhance health and well-being? Evidence from rural China. Social Science & Medicine, 64(1), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.08.027
• Ziersch, A. M., Baum, F., Darmawan, I. G. N., Kavanagh, A. M., & Bentley, R. J. (2009). Social capital and health in rural and urban communities in South Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33(1), 7–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2009.00332.x

Most read articles by the same author(s)