Ageing Care Centers: Mediating Role of Quality Care and Proactive Environment

Main Article Content

Shaista Noor
Filzah Md. Isa
Md. Sazzad Hossain
Ali Shafiq

Abstract

The aging population has become a significant concern in many countries, including Malaysia. As a developing country, Malaysia is still struggling to provide better care for the elderly segment, which is increasing in number and demands distinctive attention, care, and treatment from both family and society. This study aims to examine the relationship between Perception of Health and Happiness, Behavioral Attitude, Health Promotion, and Education, Quality Care, Proactive Environment, and Elderly Care Services in Aging care centers in Malaysia. A probability simple random sampling technique was utilized in distributing a survey-based questionnaire, and 328 responses were collected from entrepreneurs of both registered and non-registered aging care centers. The research model was assessed using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling. The remarkable results of the research are: (1) Perception of Health and Happiness do not affect Quality Care and Proactive Environment. (2) Behavioral Attitude, Health Promotion, and Education significantly affect the quality care and Proactive Environment. (3) Quality Care and Proactive Environment significantly mediate the relationship between Behavioral Attitudes, Health Promotion, and Education. (4) Quality Care insignificantly mediates the relationship between Proactive Environment and Perception of Health and Happiness. The findings revealed that Behavioral Attitude, Health Promotion, and Education have a significant effect. Hence, the present study should further be strengthened to enhance the aging care of elderly care center services for the betterment of elderly care centers, especially those that are operated by entrepreneurs. The implication of the study is discussed in the paper.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Noor, S., Isa, F. M., Hossain, M. S., & Shafiq, A. (2020). Ageing Care Centers: Mediating Role of Quality Care and Proactive Environment. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 28(4), 324 - 347. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jpss/article/view/235196
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Shaista Noor, Faculty of Business, Taylors University, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding author

References

Adebusoye, L. A., Ladipo, M. M., Owoaje, E. T., & Ogunbode, A. M. (2011). Morbidity pattern amongst elderly patients presenting at a primary care clinic in Nigeria. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v4i1.211.
Adelman, R. D., Fields, S. D., & Jutagir, R. (1992). Geriatric education part II: The effect of a well elderly program on medical student attitudes toward geriatric patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40(9), 970-973. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1992.tb01998.x
Akil, S. M. S., Abdullah, S., & Sipon, S. (2014). Challenges in managing elderly care centers in Malaysia. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 7(3), 129-139. https://www.universitypublications.net/ijas/0703/pdf/P4RS247.pdf.
Alsenany S. (2007). Student nurses’ attitudes and knowledge towards the care of older people in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from https://sos.kau.edu.sa/Files/0004020/Researches/60175_32558.pdf.
Ayoǧlu, F. N., Kulakçı, H., Ayyıldız, T. K., Aslan, G. K., & Veren, F. (2013). Attitudes of Turkish nursing and medical students toward elderly people. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 25(3), 241-248. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659613515527.
Bernard, M. A., McAuley, W. J., Belzer, J. A., & Neal, K. S. (2003). An evaluation of a low-intensity intervention to introduce medical students to healthy older people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(3), 419-423. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51119.x.
Bleijenberg, N. (2012). Dutch nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes towards older people - A longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v2n2p1
Brannen, J. (2017). Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge
Carman, J. M., Shortell, S. M., Foster, R. W., Hughes, E. F., Boerstler, H., O'Brien, J. L., & O'Connor, E. J. (2010). Keys for successful implementation of total quality management in hospitals. Health Care Management Review, 35(4), 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1097/hmr.0b013e3181f5fc4a
Chawla, M., Betcherman, G., & Banerji, A. (2007). From red to gray: The "Third Transition" of aging populations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7129-9
Chopil, T. Y. & Hunt, B. T. W. (2009). Orang Asli land rights: A raw, not-so-new deal. Aliran. https://doi.org/10.1163/2210-7975_hrd-1184-0343.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge.
Cozort, R. W. (2008). Student nurses' attitudes regarding older adults: Strategies for fostering improvement through academia. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 3(1), 21-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2007.07.013
Davis, R., Campbell, R., Hildon, Z., Hobbs, L., & Michie, S. (2015). Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review. Health Psychol Rev, 9(3), 323–344. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F17437199.2014.941722
Elder, J. L. (2003). A Field guide to environmental literacy: Making strategic investment in environmental education. Beverly, MA: Environmental Education Coalition.
Eltantawy. (2013). Knowledge attitudes towards elderly people and disabled changing attitudes towards UD assignments after aging Similation program experiential education: Centered on architectural students in 5-year program. Journal of North-East Asian Cultures, 1(37), 543-561. https://doi.org/10.17949/jneac.1.37.201312.031
Erdemir, F., Kav, S., Citak, E.A., Hanoglu, Z., & Karahan, A. (2011). A Turkish version of Kogan's attitude toward older people (KAOP) scale: Reliability and validity assessment. Arch GerontolGeriatr, 52(3), 162-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2010.10.019
Ferreira, V. M., & Ruiz, T. (2012). Atitudes e conhecimentos de agentes comunitários de saúde e suas relações com idosos [Community health workers' attitudes and beliefs toward the elderly]. Revista de Saúde Pública, 46(5), 843-849. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-89102012000500011
Golberstein, E., Kolvenbach, S., Carruthers, H., Druss, B., & Goering, P. (2018). Effects of electronic psychiatric consultations on primary care provider perceptions of mental health care: Survey results from a randomized evaluation. Healthcare, 6(1), 17-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hjdsi.2017.01.002
Greenberg, D. L., Keane, M. M., Ryan, L., & Verfaellie, M. (2009). Impaired category fluency in medial temporal lobe amnesia: The role of episodic memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(35), 10900-10908. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.1202-09.2009
Gupta, N., & Mirchandani, A. (2018). Investigating entrepreneurial success factors of women-owned SMEs in UAE. Management Decision, 56(1), 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1108/md-04-2017-0411
Hagen, S. A. (2013). Rising demand for long-term services and supports for elderly people. Congressional budget office (CBO). Encyclopedia of Health Services Research. Retrieved from https://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/113th-congress-2013-2014/reports/44363-ltc.pdf
Hair, J., Black, B. Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hair, J. F. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Hauff, S., Hult, G. T., Richter, N. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017a). Kapitel 4: A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) 89-117. https://doi.org/10.15358/9783800653614-89.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2017b). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). London: Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Hall, S., Kolliakou, A., Petkova, H., Froggatt, K., & Higginson, I. J. (2011). Interventions for improving palliative care for older people living in nursing care homes. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd007132.pub2
Hanson, R. M. (2014). Is elderly care affected by nurse attitudes? A systematic review. British Journal of Nursing, 23(4), 225–229. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2014.23.4.225
Happell, B. & Brooker, J. (2001). Who will look after my grandmother? Attitudes of student nurses toward the care of older adults. J Gerontol Nurs, 27(12), 12-17. https://doi.org/10.3928/0098-9134-20011201-07
He, X., Hong, T., Liu, L., & Tiefenbacher, J. (2011). A comparative study of environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among university students in China. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 20(2), 91-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/10382046.2011.564783
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014a). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8
Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., … Calantone, R. J. (2014b). Common Beliefs and Reality About PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182-209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428114526928
Hungerford, H. R. (2005). Essential readings in environmental education. Stipes Publishing Llc.
Ivers, N., Jamtvedt, G., Flottorp, S., Young, J. M., Odgaard-Jensen, J., French, S. D., … Oxman, A. D. (2012). Audit and feedback: Effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, 6. Art. No.: CD000259. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd000259.pub3
Jensen, G. M. (1992). PT Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research and Practice. Glanz K, Lewis F, Rimer B, eds. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass Publishers. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 6(1). p. 39. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001416-199201000-00021
Kanwar, A., Singh, M., Lennon, R., Ghanta, K., McNallan, S. M., & Roger, V. L. (2013). Frailty and health-related quality of life among residents of long-term care facilities. Journal of Aging and Health, 25(5), 792-802. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264313493003
Kehyayan, V., Hirdes, J. P., Tyas, S. L., & Stolee, P. (2015). Predictors of long-term care facility residents’ self-reported quality of life with individual and facility characteristics in Canada. Journal of Aging and Health, 28(3), 503-529. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264315594138
Kido, N., Petacchi, R., & Weber, J. (2012). The influence of elections on the accounting choices of governmental entities. Journal of Accounting Research, 50(2), 443-476. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-679x.2012.00447.x
King, C., Rossetti, J., Smith, T. J., Raison, M., Gallegos, D., Gorman, R., … Watson, J. (2019). Effects of a mindfulness activity on nursing service staff perceptions of caring behaviors in the workplace. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 57(11), 28-36. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20190626-01
Kleinbaum, D. G., Kupper, L. L., & Morgenstern, H. (1982). Epidemiologic research: Principles and quantitative methods. John Wiley & Sons.
Kogan, N. (1961). Attitudes toward old people: The development of a scale and an examination of correlates. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62(1), 44-54. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0048053
Kueh, S. T., Keng, S. B., Syn, J. N., & Lin, Y. P. (Eds.). (2016). Newsletter of the National Council of Senior Citizens Organisations Malaysia (NACSCOM), 32. Retrieved from http://www.nacscom.org.my/uploads/8/3/6/1/8361615/august_senior_voice_lr_1.pdf
Lee, R., & Mason, A. (2012). Population aging and the generational economy: A global perspective. Population and Development Review, 38(1), 165-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00477.x
Liu, Y., Norman, I. J., & While, A. E. (2012). Nurses’ attitudes towards older people: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(9), 1271-1282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.11.021
Lukas, C. V., Holmes, S. K., Cohen, A. B., Restuccia, J., Cramer, I. E., Shwartz, M., & Charns, M. P. (2007). Transformational change in health care systems. Health Care Management Review, 32(4), 309-320. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.hmr.0000296785.29718.5d
Mark, A. G., Tran, Y., Wilson, I., & Kurrle, S. (2019). Development of the Australian ageing semantic differential, a new instrument for measuring Australian medical student attitudes towards older people. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 38(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/ajag.12627
McKinlay, A., & Cowan, S. (2003). Student nurses' attitudes towards working with older patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(3), 298-309. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02713.x
Mertler, C. A., & Vannatta, R. A. (2002). Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Los Angeles. CA: Pyrczak.
Nitzl, C., Roldan, J. L., & Cepeda, G. (2016). Mediation analysis in partial least squares path modeling. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(9), 1849-1864. https://doi.org/10.1108/imds-07-2015-0302
Noor, S., Md. Isa, F., & Mohd Nor, L. (2019). Ageing care centre women entrepreneur: A silver bullet for ageing tsunami in Malaysia. Sains Humanika, 12(1), 51-62. https://doi.org/10.11113/sh.v12n1.1600
Ong, F. S., Phillips, D. R., & Hamid, T. A. (2009). Ageing in Malaysia: Progress and prospects. In T.-H. Fu & R. Hughes (Eds.), Ageing in East Asia: Challenges and policies for the twenty-first century (pp. 138-160). London: Routledge.
Ortiz-Prado, E., Fors, M., Henriquez-Trujillo, A. R., Cevallos-Sierra, G. H., Barreto-Grimaldos, A., Simbaña-Rivera, K., … Lister, A. (2019). Attitudes and perceptions of medical doctors towards the local health system: A questionnaire survey in Ecuador. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4211-1
Oyetunde, M. O., Ojo, O. O., & Ojewale, L. Y. (2013). Nurses’ attitude towards the care of the elderly: Implications for gerontological nursing training. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(7). https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v3n7p150
Palmore, E. B. (1988). Springer series on adulthood and aging, Vol. 21. The facts on aging quiz: A handbook of uses and results. Springer Publishing Co.
Park, S., Kang, J. Y., & Chadiha, L. A. (2018). Social network types, health, and health-care use among South Korean older adults. Research on Aging, 40(2), 131-154. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027516682814
Phua, K. H., Lee, G. G., & Mui, T. Y. (2019). Ageing in Asia: contemporary trends and policy issues. Ageing in Asia, 389-443. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813225558_bmatter.
Pillemer, K., & Finkelhor, D. (1988). The prevalence of elder abuse: A random sample survey. The Gerontologist, 28(1), 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/28.1.51
Poreddi, V., Carpenter, B. D., Gandhi, S., Chandra, R., & BadaMath, S. (2015). Knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nursing students toward dementia: An Indian perspective. Investigación y Educación en Enfermería, 33(3). https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iee.v33n3a16
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717-731. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03206553
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/brm.40.3.879
Rasoolimanesh S. M., Noor S. M., & Jaafar M. (2019) Positive and Negative Perceptions of Residents Toward Tourism Development: Formative or Reflective. In: Rezaei S. (eds) Quantitative Tourism Research in Asia. Perspectives on Asian Tourism (pp. 247-271). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2463-5_12
Rhee, J., Meller, A., Krysinska, K., Gonski, P., Naganathan, V., Zwar, N., … Caplan, G. A. (2019). Advance care planning for patients with advanced illnesses attending hospital outpatient clinics study: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ open, 9(1), e023107. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023107
Ringle, C. M., Bido, D. D. S., & Mackenzie, U. P. (2015). Structural equation modeling with the smart PLS. Brazilian Journal of Marketing, 13(2), 56-73. https://doi.org/10.5585/remark.v13i2.2717
Salleh, H. (2004). The Native people and future environment. Inaugural lecture. National University of Malaysia. Bangi: National University of Malaysia Press.
Samad, S., & Mansor, N. (2017). Population ageing and social protection in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 50(2), 139-156. Retrieved from https://mjes.um.edu.my/article/view/2873
Shimbo, T., Goto, M., Morimoto, T., Hira, K., Takemura, M., Matsui, K., … Fukui, T. (2004). Association between patient education and health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Quality of Life Research, 13(1), 81-89. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:qure.0000015306.59840.95
Singh, D. K. A., Subramaniam, P., Nor, N., Rusly, F. Z., & Ghazali, S. E. (2018). Knowledge and Attitude towards Ageing among health science university students. Journal of the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, 17(01), 36-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.22442/jlumhs.181710546
Söderhamn, O., Lindencrona, C., & Gustavsson, S. M. (2001). Attitudes toward older people among nursing students and registered nurses in Sweden. Nurse Educ Today, 21(3), 225-229. https://doi.org/10.1054/nedt.2000.0546
Tohit, N., Browning, C. J., & Radermacher, H. (2012). We want a peaceful life here and hereafter: Healthy ageing perspectives of older malays in Malaysia. Ageing and Society, 32(3), 405-424. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0144686x11000316
Tracey, J. B., & Hinkin, T. R. (1998). Transformational leadership or effective managerial practices? Group & Organization Management, 23(3), 220-236. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601198233002
Tsai, A. C., & Papachristos, A. V. (2015). From social networks to health: Durkheim after the turn of the millennium. Social Science & Medicine, 125, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.045
Ursulica, T. E. (2016). The relationship between health care needs and accessibility to health care services in Botosani county- Romania. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 32, 300-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.035
Vannucci, M. J., & Weinstein, S. M. (2017). The nurse entrepreneur: Empowerment needs, challenges, and self-care practices. Nursing Research and Reviews, 7, 57-66. https://doi.org/10.2147/nrr.s98407
Vincent, C., Deaudelin, I., Robichaud, L., Rousseau, J., Viscogliosi, C., Talbot, L. R., & Desrosiers, J. (2007). Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: Perceptions of four populations. BMC Geriatrics, 7, 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-7-20.
Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52. https://doi.org/10.1177/089431849701000114
Wan-Ibrahim, W. A., & Ismail, Z. (2014). Some demographic aspects of population aging in Malaysia. World Applied Sciences Journal, 30(7), 891-894. http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj30(7)14/15.pdf
Windsor, T. D., Rioseco, P., Fiori, K. L., Curtis, R. G., & Booth, H. (2016). Structural and functional social network attributes moderate the association of self-rated health with mental health in midlife and older adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(1), 49-61. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1041610215001143
Wold, S. (1992). Nonlinear partial least squares modelling II. Spline inner relation. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 14(1-3), 71-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-7439(92)80093-j
World Health Organization (2016). Aging, place, and health. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Xing, C., Zhang, X., & Cheng, S. (2017). Would more social partner’s leads to enhanced health? The paradox between quantity and quality. PsyCh Journal, 6(3), 219-227. https://doi.org/10.1002/pchj.181.
Yang, Y., Xiao, L. D., Ullah, S., & Deng, L. (2015). General practitioners’ knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people in China. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 34(2), 82–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajag.12105
Zakari, N. M. A. (2005). Attitudes toward the elderly and knowledge of aging as correlates to the willingness and intention to work with elderly among Saudi nursing students (Order No. 3159661). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/305367054?accountid=46528