Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Conditions and Their Association with Selected Diseases in Urban India

Main Article Content

Surendra Kumar Patel
Manas Ranjan Pradhan
Sunita Patel

Abstract

In urban India, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are a significant public health concern because the urban resident has more adverse exposure to WASH practices and there is a severe crisis of demand and supply. This study aims to explore WASH conditions and their association with selected diseases in urban households in India. WASH conditions and the prevalence rates of stomach problems, malaria, skin diseases, and fever due to diseases other than malaria were calculated using the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)’s 69th round data. Logistic regression was carried out to examine the association of WASH conditions with selected diseases. About 95% of households studied had access to improved sources of drinking water, 77% had water sources within their premises, and 90% had improved latrine facilities. 52% were covered by municipalities’ garbage collection facilities, 60% were connected with improved drainage, whereas 97% had problems with flies and mosquitos. Unimproved sources of drinking water were significantly associated with stomach problems and skin diseases. The quality of drinking water, the non-availability of latrine facilities, and the absence of garbage collections were significantly associated with stomach problems and fever other than malaria. Improved WASH conditions are crucial to achieving better health and development in urban India, and the results suggest the need for effective policy and program interventions in waste management along with awareness generation on hygienic environment.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Patel, S. K., Pradhan, M. R., & Patel, S. (2020). Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Conditions and Their Association with Selected Diseases in Urban India. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 28(2), 103 - 115. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jpss/article/view/180495
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Surendra Kumar Patel, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India

Corresponding author

References

Baranwal, A., Baranwal, A., & Roy, N. (2014). Association of household environment and prevalence of anemia among children under-5 in India. Frontiers in public health, 2, 196. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368862
Bartlett, S. (2003). Water, sanitation and urban children: the need to go beyond “improved” provision. Environment and Urbanization, 15(2), 57-70. doi: 10.1177/095624780301500220.
Bartram, J., & Cairncross, S. (2010). Hygiene, sanitation, and water: Forgotten foundations of health. PLoS Med, 7(11), e1000367. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000367.
Cairncross, S. (2003). Sanitation in the developing world: current status and future solutions. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 13(sup1), S123-S131. doi: 10.1080/0960312031000102886.
Census of India. (2011). Census of India 2011. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved from https://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/population_enumeration.html
Chaplin, S.E. (1999). Cities, sewers and poverty: India's politics of sanitation. Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 145-158. doi: 10.1177/095624789901100123.
Chaplin, S.E. (2011). Indian cities, sanitation and the state: the politics of the failure to provide. Environment and Urbanization, 23(1), 57-70. doi: 10.1177/0956247810396277.
Coffey, D., Gupta, A., Hathi, P., Khurana, N., Srivastav, N., Vyas, S., & Spears, D. (2014). Open defecation: evidence from a new survey in rural north India. Economic & Political Weekly, 49(38), 43-55.
Das, A., & Das, B. (2015). Does sanitation affect health outcomes? Evidence from India. Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/63760/
Davis, J., White, G., Damodaron, S., & Thorsten, R. (2008). Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development. Water Science and Technology, 58(4), 887-891. doi: 10.2166/wst.2008.671.
Dhiman, S., Veer, V., & Dev, V. (2018). Declining transmission of Malaria in India: Accelerating towards elimination. In Towards Malaria Elimination-A Leap Forward. IntechOpen. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.77046.
Dobe, M., Sur, A., & Biswas, B. (2011). Sanitation: The hygienic means of promoting health. Indian Journal of Public Health, 55(1), 49-51. doi: 10.4103/0019-557x.82557.
Esrey, S.A., Potash, J.B., Roberts, L., & Shiff, C. (1991). Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bull World Health Organ, 69(5), 609-621. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1835675
Garn, J.V., Sclar, G.D., Freeman, M.C., Penakalapati, G., Alexander, K.T., Brooks, P., . . . Clasen, T.F. (2017). The impact of sanitation interventions on latrine coverage and latrine use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 220(2, Part B), 329-340. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.10.001.
Gopal, S., Sarkar, R., Banda, K., Govindarajan, J., Harijan, B.B., Jeyakumar, M.B., . . . Balraj, V. (2009). Study of water supply & sanitation practices in India using geographic information systems: some design & other considerations in a village setting. Indian J Med Res, 129(3), 233-241. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19491414
Gupta, V., & Pal, M. (2008). Community sanitation campaign: a study in Haryana. Economic and Political Weekly, 20-23.
Hunter, P.R., Zmirou-Navier, D., & Hartemann, P. (2009). Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries. Science of the total environment, 407(8), 2621-2624. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19193396
Inah, S.A., Uwadiegwu, Z., Eko, J.E., & Inah, J.A. (2017). Environmental sanitation practices on malaria control and prevention in Abi local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health, 6(2), 1-12. Retrieved from https://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/AJMAH_48/2017/Aug/Eko622017AJMAH34870.pdf
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) & Inner City Fund (ICF) . (2017). National family health survey (NFHS-4), 2016–17: India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India. Retrieved from https://rchiips.org/nfhs/NFHS-4Reports/India.pdf
Joardar, S.D. (1998). Carrying capacities and standards as bases towards urban infrastructure planning in India: A case of urban water supply and sanitation. Habitat International, 22(3), 327-337. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-3975(98)00002-2
Kumar, A. (2015). Discrepancies in sanitation statistics of rural India. Economic and Political Weekly, 50(2), 13-15.
Kumar, A., & Das, K. (2014). Drinking water and sanitation facility in India and its linkages with diarrhoea among children under five: evidences from recent data. Int J Humanit Soc Sci Invent, 3, 50-60. Retrieved from https://ijhssi.org/papers/v3(4)/Version-3/I03403050060.pdf.
Kumar, G.S., Kar, S.S., & Jain, A. (2011). Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 15(3), 93.
Kumar, K.S., & Harada, H. (2002). Field survey on water supply, sanitation and associated health impacts in urban poor communities--a case from Mumbai City, India. Water Sci Technol, 46(11-12), 269-275. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12523765
Macy, J.T., & Quick, R.E. (2009). Transmission and prevention of water related diseases. Water and Health, 1.
Mara, D., Lane, J., Scott, B., & Trouba, D. (2010). Sanitation and health. PLoS Med, 7(11), e1000363. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000363.
Mauti, G.O., Mauti, E.M., & Kowanga, D.K. (2015). Evaluation of malaria spread in relation to poor environmental conditions at Kibaha district (Tanzania). Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research, 4(5), 203-206. Retrieved from https://www.jsirjournal.com/Vol4_Issue5_03.pdf
Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA). (2019). Retrieved from https://mohua.gov.in/cms/schemes-or-programmes.php
Mishra, S., & Goldar, B. (2008). Likely impact of reforming water supply and sewerage services in Delhi. Economic & Political Weekly.
Nath, K.J. (2003). Home hygiene and environmental sanitation: a country situation analysis for India. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 13(sup1), S19-S28. doi: 10.1080/0960312031000102778.
Prüss, A., Kay, D., Fewtrell, L., & Bartram, J. (2002). Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level. Environ Health Perspect, 110(5), 537-542.
Prüss Ustün, A., Bartram, J., Clasen, T., Colford Jr, J.M., Cumming, O., Curtis, V., . . . Fewtrell, L. (2014). Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries. Trop Med Int Health, 19(8), 894-905. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24779548.
Puri, A., Kumar, M., & Johal, E. (2008). Solid-waste management in Jalandhar city and its impact on community health. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 12(2), 76. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2796757/.
Reese, H., Routray, P., Torondel, B., Sclar, G., Delea, M.G., Sinharoy, S.S., . . . Chang, H.H. (2017). Design and rationale of a matched cohort study to assess the effectiveness of a combined household-level piped water and sanitation intervention in rural Odisha, India. BMJ open, 7(3), e012719. Retrieved from https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/3/e012719.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2012). Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).
United Nations. (2018). World urbanization prospects: The 2018 revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, United Nations, New York. Retrieved from https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Report.pdf.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2018a). Samitation: key facts. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/sanitation.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2018b). World Malaria Report – 2018. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2018/report/en/.
World Health Organization (WHO) & The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (2015). Progress on sanitation and drinking water–2015 update and MDG assessment. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Progress-on-Sanitation-and-Drinking-Water_234.pdf.