Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Conditions and Their Association with Selected Diseases in Urban India

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Surendra Kumar Patel
Manas Ranjan Pradhan
Sunita Patel


In urban India, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are a significant public health concern because the urban resident has more adverse exposure to WASH practices and there is a severe crisis of demand and supply. This study aims to explore WASH conditions and their association with selected diseases in urban households in India. WASH conditions and the prevalence rates of stomach problems, malaria, skin diseases, and fever due to diseases other than malaria were calculated using the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)’s 69th round data. Logistic regression was carried out to examine the association of WASH conditions with selected diseases. About 95% of households studied had access to improved sources of drinking water, 77% had water sources within their premises, and 90% had improved latrine facilities. 52% were covered by municipalities’ garbage collection facilities, 60% were connected with improved drainage, whereas 97% had problems with flies and mosquitos. Unimproved sources of drinking water were significantly associated with stomach problems and skin diseases. The quality of drinking water, the non-availability of latrine facilities, and the absence of garbage collections were significantly associated with stomach problems and fever other than malaria. Improved WASH conditions are crucial to achieving better health and development in urban India, and the results suggest the need for effective policy and program interventions in waste management along with awareness generation on hygienic environment.


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Patel, S. K., Pradhan, M. R., & Patel, S. (2020). Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Conditions and Their Association with Selected Diseases in Urban India. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 28(2), 103 - 115. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jpss/article/view/180495
Author Biography

Surendra Kumar Patel, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India

Corresponding author


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