Main Article Content
Depression is one of the leading causes of disease burdens in recent years, and it is expected to continue to be so in the coming decades. Depression among older people (defined as those 60 years and older) is associated with disability, increased mortality, and poorer outcomes from physical illness, but it is often under-recognized and under-treated since people know little about the underlying factors influencing it in the elderly, and how they are correlated. This paper aimed to investigate the various factors associated with depressive symptoms among Vietnam’s elderly population. We used the first-ever nationally representative data for older people, namely, the Vietnam Aging Survey (VNAS) in 2011, along with probit regression models to identify these factors. We found that, for both urban and rural areas, older people who experienced domestic violence, who did not have enough finance for daily living, and who lived alone were more likely to be depressed than their counterparts. In contrast, marital status, educational level, working status, mutual support between older people and their children, and participation in social activities were not factors significantly related to their depression. Due to different living conditions and arrangements, the depression contexts of urban and rural older people were significantly determined by different factors, such as the roles in family decision-making and the burden of care of great-grandchildren or other family members.
• Alexopoulos, G.S. (2005). Depression in the elderly. Lancet, 365, 1961–1970.
• Barcelos-Ferreira R., Pinto, J.A. Jr, Nakano, E.Y., Steffens D.C., Litvoc J., & Bottino C.M. (2009). Clinically significant depressive symptoms and associated factors in community elderly subjects from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 17(7), 582-590.doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181a76ddc.
• Bassem, R.S., El-Roueiheb, Z., Chaaya, M., & Sibai, A.M. (2005). Determinants of depression among poor elderly women: Findings from refugee and non-refugee communities in the outskirts of Beirut, Lebanon. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 1, 5. doi: https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v1i3.374
• Blazer, D.G. (2003). Depression in late life: Review and commentary. J Gerontol Med Sci, 56A, 249–265.
• Borges, L.J., Benedetti, T.R.B., Xavier, A.J., & d’Orsi, E. (2013). Associated factors of depressive symptoms in the elderly: EpiFloripa study. Rev Saúde Pública, 47(4), 1-10. doi: 10.1590/S0034-8910.2013047003844.
• Bojorquez-Chapela, I., Villalobos-Daniel, V.E., Manrique-Espinoza, B.S., Tellez-Rojo, M.M., & Salinas-Rodríguez, A. (2009). Depressive symptoms among poor older adults in Mexico: Prevalence and, associated factors. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 26(1), 70-77.
• Dao, A.T.M., Nguyen, T.V., Nguyen, V.H., & Nguyen, T.K.L. (2018). Factors associated with depression among the elderly living in urban Vietnam. J Tre Bio Res. doi: 10.15761/JTBR.1000106.
• Eyers, K., Parker, G., & Brodaty H. (2012). Managing depression growing older: A guide for professionals & carers. New South Wales (Australia): Black Dog Institute.
• General Statistics Office, Vietnam (GSO). (2016). Population Projections for Vietnam, 2014-2049: Key Findings. Hanoi: GSO.
• Giang, T.L., Pham, T.H.T., & Pham, L.T. (2016). Bao hiem y te trong cham soc suc khoe nguoi cao tuoi o Vietnam (Social health insurance in healthcare for the Vietnamese older people). Journal of Economics and Development, Special Issue 9/2016, 38-48.
• Giang, T.L., Mai, H.V., & Nguyen, T.H.D. (2016). Gender differences in financial sources and perceived financial satisfaction among older people in Vietnam. Journal of Economics and Development, 18(2), 36-58.
• Giang, T.L., & Phi, M.P. (2016). Thuc trang va yeu to tac dong den ngheo cua nguoi cao tuoi o Vietnam (Situation and factors determining poverty of the older people in Vietnam). Journal of Economics and Development, 233 (11/2016), 70-79.
• Jittawisuthikul, O., Jirapramukpitak, T., & Sumpowthong, K. (2011). Disability and late-life depression: A prospective population-based study. J Med Assoc Thai 2011; 94 (Suppl. 7), S145-S152.
• Le, T.T.T., Jullamate P., & Rosenberg E. (2017). Factors related to post-stroke depression among older adults in Da Nang, Viet Nam. Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences, 11(3), 148-157.
• Leggett A., Zarit S.H., Nguyen, N.H., Hoang, N.C., & Nguyen, T.H. (2012). The influence of social factors and health on depressive symptoms and worry: A study of older Vietnamese adults. Aging Ment Health, 16(6), 780–786. doi:10.1080/13607863.2012.667780.
• Lopez, A.D., & Murray, C.C. (1998). The global burden of disease, 1990-2020. Nat Med, 4(11), 1241-1243.
• Maulik, S. & Dasgupta, A. (2012). Depression and its determinants in the rural elderly of West Bengal: A cross-sectional study. Int. J Biol Med Res, 3(1), 1299-1302.
• Ministry of Health, Vietnam (MOH) & Health Partnership Group (HPG). (2018). Joint Annual Health Review 2016: Towards healthy aging in Vietnam. Hanoi: MOH.
• Peltzer, K. & Phaswana-Mafuya, N. (2013). Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa. Glob Health Action, 6, 1-9. doi: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.18871.
• Pham, T., & Do, K.H. (2009). Overview on the care system for older people in Vietnam under aging population. A background paper for UNFPA Vietnam.
• Sicotte, M., Beatriz, E. A., Esther-Maria, L., & Maria-Victoria, Z. (2008). Social networks and depressive symptoms among elderly women and men in Havana, Cuba. Aging & Mental Health, 12(2), 193-201.
• Sidik M., Zulkefli, N.A.M. & Shah, S.A. (2003). Factors associated with depression among elderly patients in a primary health care clinic in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Family Medicine, 2, 148–152.
• Suttajit, S., Punpuing, S., Jirapramukpitak, T., Tangchonlatip, K., Darawuttimaprakorn, N., Stewart R., … Abas, M.A. (2010). Impairment, disability, social support and depression among older parents in rural Thailand. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1711–1721. doi:10.1017/S003329170999208X.
• Teresi, J., Abrams R., Holmes D., Ramirez M., & Eimicke J. (2001). Prevalence of depression and depression recognition in nursing homes. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 36, 613-629.
• United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA). (2017). World Population Ageing 2017 (ST/ESA/SER.A/408). New York: UN-DESA.
• United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). (2017). Addressing the challenges of population ageing in Asia and the Pacific: Implementation of the Madrid international plan of action on ageing. Bangkok: UNESCAP.
• United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) & HelpAge International (HAI). (2012). Ageing in the twenty-first century: A celebration and a challenge. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) New York & HelpAge International (HAI) London.
• Vietnam Women Union. (2012). Vietnam Aging Survey (VNAS) 2011: Key Findings. Hanoi: Women Publishing House.
• Vu, T.T.H., Nguyen T.X., Nguyen T.T.H., Le T.A., Nguyen N.T., Nguyen T.A., … Ho R.C.M. (2018). Depressive symptoms among elderly diabetic patients in Vietnam. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 11, 659-665.
• Wilkinson L.R. (2016). Financial strain and mental health among older adults during the great recession. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 71(4), 745–754. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbw001.
• World Health Organization (WHO). (2015). World Report on Ageing and Health. Geneva: WHO.
• Zungzunegui M.V., Béland, F., & Otero, A. (2001). Support from children, living arrangements, self-rated heath and depressive symptoms older people in Spain. Int J Epidemiol, 30(5), 1090-1099