The Decision for Shadow Education Participation and the Perceived Formation of Educational Inequality in Thailand

Main Article Content

Pichamon Thipjaroen


This study deals with the shadow education system of private tutoring in Thailand, aiming to highlight the perceptions of students from different social backgrounds for the decisionmaking of shadow education. While a number of studies have examined the economic and policy implications of shadow education, few have undertaken thorough research of the sociological factors in Thailand. This study is primarily concerned with the relationship between social origin and discrepancy of educational opportunities of shadow education particularly to the students involved. The research was conducted through semistructured interviews and focus groups as a foundation for its qualitative research. Students from grade 10 to 12 were purposefully chosen for the data collection. The findings indicated that the decision is strongly influenced by social origin and economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) which exert a particularly high influence on the likelihood to choose shadow education particularly to those with more financial resources. The research contributes to the awareness of shadow education that benefits students’ learning while also bringing disadvantages showing implications of private tutoring which relates to students’ family socio-economic situations.

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How to Cite
Thipjaroen, P. (2021). The Decision for Shadow Education Participation and the Perceived Formation of Educational Inequality in Thailand. Journal of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University, 11(2), 27–60. Retrieved from
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