Keywords:Comparing Curricula, Comparative Study of Curriculum, Nature of Curriculum
This article analyses concepts of "curriculum", from a narrow definition synonymous with "syllabus" to a view that is all-embracing of students' formal and informal experiences in school. Various levels of curriculum are distinguished: the intended or planned curriculum; the resourced curriculum; the implemented curriculum; the hidden curriculum; the experienced curriculum; the assessed curriculum; and so on. Methods for exploring the interrelationship between these levels are presented through examples of studies that trace curricular innovations from genesis to evaluation. The chapter then presents a tripartite framework for comparing across curricula, namely purpose, level and manifestations and demonstrates the framework in action, using examples from research. The article concludes by presenting some of the challenges in undertaking a comparative study of curriculum.
Adamson, Bob., & Morris, Paul. (2007). Comparing Curricula, in Bray, Mark., Adamson Bob., & Mason Mark, (eds.). Comparative education research: Approaches and methods (pp.263-282). The University of Hong Kong: Springer.
Alexander, Robin J. (2000). Culture and pedagogy: International comparisons in primary education. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Apple, Michael W., & Christian-Smith, Linda K. (1991). The Politics of the Text-book, in Apple, Michael W & Christian-Smith, Linda K, (eds.). The Politics of the Text-book (pp.1-21). London: Routledge.
Bray, Mark., Adamson Bob., & Mason Mark. (2007). Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods. The University of Hong Kong: Springer.
Cogan, John J., Morris, Paul., & Print, Murray. (Ed.). (2002). Civic Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Case Studies Across Six Societies. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 1-22.
Hickling-Hudson, Anne., & Ahlquist, Roberta. (2003). Contesting the curriculum in the schooling of indigenous children in Australia and the United States: From Eurocentrism to Culturally Powerful Pedagogies. Comparative Education Review, 47(1), 64-89.
Kamens, David H., Meye, John W., & Benavot, Aaron. (1996): Worldwide patterns in academic secondary education curricula. Comparative Education Review, 40 (2), 116-138.
Marsh, Collin. & Willis, George. (2007). Curriculum alternative approaches: Ongoing issues. (4th ed.). New Jersey : Pearson Education, Inc.
Meyer, John., Kamens, David H., & Benavot, Aaron. (1992). School knowledge for the masses: World models and national primary curricular categories in the twentieth century. London Falmer Press.
Short, Edmund C. (1991). Introduction: Understanding Curriculum Inquiry. in Short, Edmund C. (eds.). Forms of Curriculum Inquiry (pp.1-25). Albany: State University of New York Press,
Sleeter, Christine E., & Grant, Carl A. (1991). Race, Class, Gender and Disability in Current Textbooks. in Apple, Michael W & Christian-Smith, Linda K. (eds.). The Politics of the Text-book (pp.78-110). London: Routledge.
UNICEF. (2000). End-of-cycle education programme evaluation, 1996-2000. Beijing: UNICEF.