An Analysis of Psychological Strength Factors in the Thai Context: A Psycho-Lexical Study

Main Article Content

Chuchai Smithikrai
Archabaramee Maneetrakunthong


The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate psychological strengths factors in the Thai context by using a psycho-lexical approach; and (2) to investigate relationships among psychological strengths factors and six factors of personality traits. The research was divided into 2 phases: (1) a psycho-lexical study aimed to identify psychological strengths factors in the Thai context; and (2) a correlational study aimed to examine relationships among psychological strengths factors and six factors of personality traits. 

The research instruments in phase 1 consisted of (1) a record sheet for recording person descriptive terms; (2) a record sheet for checking congruence of judges searching person descriptive terms; and (3) a verification form for classifying of person descriptive terms. In phase 2, the sample was comprised of 1,042 undergraduate students enrolled in the first and second semester of 2019 academic year. The research instruments consisted of (1) the psychological strengths assessment; (2) the HEXACO inventory; and (3) personal data sheet.

The results of phase 1 study found that person descriptive terms reflecting psychological strengths and confirmed by experts consisted of 261 terms and could be classified into 22 groups. The results of phase 2 study found that (1) each of psychological strengths was correlated with six factors of personality traits; and (2) six factors of personality traits significantly predicted each of psychological strengths. In sum, conscientiousness was the personality trait that can predict most of the psychological strengths (14 strengths). Extraversion significantly predicted 7 strengths; while openness to experience significantly predicted 5 strengths. Emotionality significantly predicted 2 strengths. In addition, honesty-humility and agreeableness significantly predicted only one strength.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Smithikrai, C., & Maneetrakunthong, A. (2021). An Analysis of Psychological Strength Factors in the Thai Context: A Psycho-Lexical Study. Journal of Human Sciences, 22(1), 121-142. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Asplund, J., Agrawal, S., Hodges, T., Harter, J., & Lopez, S.J. (2014). The Clifton StrengthsFinder® 2.0 technical report: Development and validation [technical report]. Washington, DC: Gallup.
Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C.-P. (1987). Practical Issues in Structural Modeling. Sociological Methods & Research, 16(1). 78–117.
Dahlsgaard, K., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Shared virtue: The convergence of valued human strengths across culture and history. Review of General Psychology, 9(3), 203–213.
De Vries, R. E. (2013). The 24-item brief HEXACO inventory (BHI). Journal of Research in Personality, 47(6). 871–880.
Furnham, A., & Ahmetoglu, G. (2014). Personality, ideology, intelligence, and self-rated strengths. Psychology, 5(08). 908–917.
Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 141–165). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Goodman, F. R., Disabato, D. J., & Kashdan, T. B. (2018). Integrating psychological strengths under the umbrella of personality science: Rethinking the definition, measurement, and modification of strengths. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1-7.
Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kidder, R. M. (1994). Shared values for a troubled world: Conversations with men and women of conscience. San Francisco: Jessey-Bass.
Komin, S. (1991). Psychology of the Thai people: Values and behavioral patterns. Bangkok: Research Center, National Institute of Development Administration.
Küng, H. (1998). A global ethics for global politics and economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2008). The HEXACO personality factors in the indigenous personality lexicons of English and 11 other languages. Journal of Personality, 76(5). 1001–1054.
Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Morrison, D. L., Cordery, J., & Dunlop, P. D. (2008). Predicting integrity with the HEXACO personality model: Use of self- and observer reports. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(1). 147–167.
Liang, C. T., Chia, T. L., & Liang, C. (2015). Effect of personality differences in shaping entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6(4). 166-176.
Linley, A., Willars, J., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). The strengths book: What you can do, love to do, and find it hard to do – and why it matters. Coventry, UK: CAPP Press.
McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2). 175–215.
McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2). 295-309.
McGrath, R. E., Hall-Simmonds, A., & Goldberg, L. R. (2017). Are measures of character and personality distinct? Evidence from observed-score and true-score analyses. Assessment, 1-19.
Mesurado, B., Mateo, N. J., Valencia, M., & Richaud, M. C. (2014). Extraversion: Nature, development and implication to psychological health and work life. In A. D. Haddock & A. P. Rutkowski, Psychology of Extraversion (pp. 1-13). Hauppauge, NY: Nova.
Moutafi, J., Furnham, A., & Tsaousis, I. (2006). Is the relationship between intelligence and trait Neuroticism mediated by test anxiety? Personality and Individual Differences, 40(3). 587–597.
Noftle, E. E., Schnitker, S. A., & Robins, R. W. (2011). Character and personality. Designing Positive Psychology, 207–227.
Park, N. & Peterson, C. (2005). The values in action inventory of character strengths for youth. In K. Moore, L. Lippmann (Eds.). What do children need to flourish? (pp. 13–23). NY: Spring.
Pervin, L. A. (1980). Personality theory and assessment. NY: Wiley.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A classification and handbook. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH. Retrieved from
Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R. (2001). Lexical studies of indigenous personality factors: Premises, products, and prospects. Journal of Personality, 69. 847–880.
Saucier, G., Georgiades, S., Tsaousis, I., & Goldberg, L. R. (2005). The factor structure of Greek personality adjectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(5). 856–875.
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1). 5–14.
Sternthal, B., Tubott, A. M., Calder, B. J., & Richard, P. (1994). Experimental design: Generalization and theoretical explanation. In R. P. Bagozzi (Ed.), Principles of marketing research (pp. 195-223). Oxford: Blackwell.
Triandis, H. C. (1988). Collectivism vs. individualism. In G. Verma & C. Bagley (Eds.), Cross-cultural studies of personality, attitudes and cognition (pp. 60-95). London: Macmillan.
Wright, B., Peters, E., Ettinger, U., Kuipers, E., & Kumari, V. (2014). Understanding noise stress-induced cognitive impairment in healthy adults and its implications for schizophrenia. Noise and Health, 16(70). 166.