Designing Restorative Environment to Restore and Improve Learning of Children with Autism in Child Psychiatric Ward, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital.

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ภักดิ์จีรา บุญเติง
Apichoke Lekagul


One of the reasons that children with autism have negative behaviors, such as easily irritated, is fatigue from studying or from ongoing treatment which causes children to lose interest to teacher. The Attention Restoration Theory, indicates that the natural environment can help restore the mind from fatigue.  Therefore, this research studies the environmental modifications using elements based on Attention Restoration Theory to design 3 levels of classroom environment, which are 1) The original environment, 2) 2D representation of natural environment and 3) 3D representation of natural environment. The subjects include a group of 12 children with autism, which are receiving treatments at the Child Psychiatric Ward, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital.  While receiving the treatments, the subjects are assessed by caregiver nurses using 3 sets of measurement, consisting of 1) Connectedness to Nature Scale-children (CNS-ch), 2) Perceived Restorative Components Scale for Children 2 (PRCS-CII) and 3) The Activity Skills (ABC).  The subjects are treated and assessed in each level of the environments for 3 weeks before modifying to the next level. The results show that the subjects received the highest averages scores of the CNS-ch, PRCS-CII and ABC while in the 3D representation of natural environment, following by the 2D representation of natural environment and the original environment, respectively.  This research then suggests applying 3D representation of natural environment in the design of the classroom to restore and help improve the learning outcome of children with autism.


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บุญเติงภ., & Lekagul, A. (2020). Designing Restorative Environment to Restore and Improve Learning of Children with Autism in Child Psychiatric Ward, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. Journal of Human Sciences, 21(2), 120-138. Retrieved from
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