State versus Human Security: Critical Focus on Pakistan

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Balancing state and human security poses a formidable challenge for developing states like Pakistan. In 2023, Pakistan allocated 3 percent of its GDP for traditional security and ranked as the 8th largest global arms importer. Despite allocating substantial resources to counter traditional security threats, Pakistan has a conspicuous oversight in addressing human security, depriving its people of empowerment and development. This study examines the intricate relationship between state and human security in Pakistan, evaluating the deleterious impact of prioritizing state security over human security. This study contends that such an approach diminishes people's security. With a desk research method, the analysis discloses a disconcerting human insecurity situation in Pakistan. These are high poverty rates (37 percent), substantial illiteracy (40 percent), 1.1 million children living on the streets, 19 million child brides, and gender inequality (ranked 161 out of 191 countries). The study demonstrates that relying solely on prioritizing traditional state security proves inadequate and leaves limited development resources for people's security, particularly in the realms of socioeconomic and educational insecurity. The human security concept, emphasizing people-centered security and freedom from fear and want, underscores the imperative of a more balanced approach. Therefore, investing in human security, specifically socio-economic and educational security, empowers individuals and communities and helps provide freedom from the fear of poverty and educational insecurity. In conclusion, addressing both state and human security concerns through balanced policies utilizing a human security approach is indispensable.

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Shahnawaz. (2023). State versus Human Security: Critical Focus on Pakistan. Journal of Human Rights and Peace Studies, 9(2), 252–278. Retrieved from
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