Examining the Impact of Drought on Farmer Rights in South-Central Mindanao, Philippines

Main Article Content

Lorena Sabino
Noel G. Sabino
Maricel T. Villamayor
Clarissa D. Ruzol
Liezl B. Grefalda
Lara Paul A. Ebal
Juan M. Pulhin


This study investigated the impacts of the 2015-2016 drought on farmers’ rights in the Cities of Koronadal and Kidapawan, South-Central Mindanao, Philippines. The research design utilized a combination of methods, including a literature review, surveys, and focus group discussions with farmers in the study areas from July 2017 to February 2018. The study found that the drought significantly impacted the environment, economy, and society. The drought in 2015-2016 resulted in reduced crop yields, income loss, and food shortages for farmers. Moreover, a significant association was found between water shortages and crop damage due to diseases and insect infestations, which caused a decline in the market value of farm produce, thereby undermining farmers' fundamental rights. This study highlighted the significant cascading effects of drought on farmers' rights, including their rights to water, livelihood, food, health, information, peace, security, property, the ability to save and sell farm produce, and life. Effective policy interventions leading to sustainable livelihood programs, including strategies such as water resource management, livelihood diversification, and promotion of drought-tolerant farming systems, are needed to help farmers cope with drought and build resilience against future water scarcity. In conclusion, the study underscores the urgent need for effective policy interventions to address the risks and vulnerabilities associated with drought and to protect farmers' rights to water and their ability to sustain their livelihoods.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sabino, L., Sabino, N. G., Villamayor, M. T. ., Ruzol, C. D. ., Grefalda, L. B. ., Ebal , L. P. A. ., & Pulhin, J. M. . (2023). Examining the Impact of Drought on Farmer Rights in South-Central Mindanao, Philippines. Journal of Human Rights and Peace Studies, 9(1), 56–89. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/HRPS/article/view/267012
Research Articles


Ahmad, M. M., Yaseen, M., & E. Saqib, S. E. (2022). Climate change impacts of drought on the livelihood of dryland smallholders: Implications of adaptation challenges. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 80, Article 103210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2022.103210

Algur, K. D., Patel, S. K., & Chauhan, S. (2021). The impact of drought on the health and livelihoods of women and children in India: A systematic review. Children and Youth Services Review, 122, Article 105909. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105909

change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/WGII_TAR_full_report-2.pdf

City Government of Koronadal. (2009). Ecological profile of Koronadal City.

City Government of Koronadal. (2023). Geography: Climate. https://koronadal.gov.ph/geography/

Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines. (2016). CHR releases Kidapawan Report. https://chr.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/30-May-2016-CHR-releases-Kidapawan-Report.pdf

Dellal, I., & McCarl, B. A. (2010). The economic impacts of drought on agriculture: The case of Turkey. In: López-Francos A. (Eds.), Economics of drought and drought preparedness in a climate change context (pp. 169-174). Options Méditerranéennes. https://om.ciheam.org/om/pdf/a95/00801342.pdf

Drought-hit South Cotabato declares state of calamity. (2016, March 22). Reliefweb. https://reliefweb.int/report/philippines/drought-hit-south-cotabato-declares-state-calamity

Fernandez, E. (2019, October 23). Kidapawan city placed under state of calamity. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1083947

Fernandez, E. O. (2016). Koronadal city mulls declaration of calamity due to drought. Mindanao Cross. https://mindanaocross.wordpress.com/2016/02/22/koronadal-city-mulls-declaration-of-calamity-due-to-drought/

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2009). International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (ITPGRFA). https://www.fao.org/3/i0510e/i0510e.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2010). Farmers' rights. https://www.fao.org/plant-treaty/areas-of-work/farmers-rights/en/

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2019). The state of the world’s biodiversity for food and agriculture. https://www.fao.org/3/CA3129EN/CA3129EN.pdf

Hilario, F., de Guzman, R., Ortega, D., Hayman, P., & Alexander, B. (2010). El Nino southern oscillation in the Philippines: Impacts, forecasts, and risk management. Philippine Journal of Development, XXXVI(1-b). https://serp-p.pids.gov.ph/publication/public/view?slug=el-nino-southern-oscillation-in-the-philippines-impacts-forecasts-and-risk-management

Inter-agency Regional Analysts Network. (2015). Global report 2015/16 El Nino event. http://www.iris-france.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/IARAN-El-Nino-October-2015.pdf.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2001). Climate

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2012). Glossary of terms. In C. B. Field, & V. R. Barros (Eds.), Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (pp. 555-564). Cambridge University Press. https://archive.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srex/SREX-Annex_Glossary.pdf

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WGIIAR5-FrontMatterA_FINAL.pdf

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2016, April 29). Information bulletin Philippines: Drought and dry-spells. https://www.ifrc.org/docs/Appeals/16/IBPHdr290416.pdf

Jaranilla-Sanchez, P. A., Wang, L., & Koike, T. (2011), Modeling the hydrologic responses of the Pampanga River basin, Philippines: A quantitative approach for identifying droughts, Water Resources Research, 47(3). https://doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009702

Kogan, F., Guo, W., & Yang, W. (2019). Drought and food security prediction from NOAA new generation of operational satellites. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 10(1), 651-666. https://doi.org/10.1080/19475705.2018.1541257

Lacorte, G., Manlupig, K., & Magbanua, W. (2016, April 2). Cops, farmers clash in Kidapawan; 2 dead. Inquirer.net. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/777439/cops-farmers-clash-in-kidapawan-2-dead

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2012). Drought Report 2012. https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/monitoring/monthly-report/drought/201207

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2017). Highlights of the Philippine population 2015 census of population. https://psa.gov.ph/content/highlights-philippine-population-2015-census-population

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2020). Population and housing highlights of the 2020 census of population and housing. https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2020%20Census%20of%20Population%20and%20Housing_Population%20and%20Housing%20Highlights%20of%20the%20Philippines.pdf

Ray, R. L., Fares, A., & Risch, E. (2018). Effects of drought on crop production and cropping areas in Texas. Agricultural & Environmental Letters, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.2134/ael2017.11.0037

Ruwanza, S., Thondhlana, G., & Falayi, M. (2022). Research progress and conceptual insights on drought impacts and responses among smallholder farmers in South Africa: A Review. Land, 11(2), 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020159

Santilli, J. (2012). Farmers' rights. In J. Santilli (Ed.) Agrobiodiversity and the law: Regulating genetic resources, food security and cultural diversity. Earthscan. http://archive.abs-biotrade.info/uploads/media/Farmers_Rights_-_Juliana_Santilli.pdf

Southeast Asia Regional Initiatives for Community Empowerment (SEARICE). (2018). Views, experiences and best practices as an example of possible options for the national implementation of article 9 of the international treaty submitted by Contracting Parties and Relevant Organizations. https://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/faoweb/plant-treaty/submissions/FRs_SEARICE.pdf

Udmale, P., Ichikawa, Y., Manandhar, S. Ishidaira, H., & Kiem, A. S. (2014). Farmers' perception of drought impacts, local adaptation and administrative mitigation measures in Maharashtra State, India. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10(Part A), 250-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.09.011

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2021). Special report on drought 2021. https://www.droughtmanagement.info/literature/UN-GAR_Specia_Report_on_Drought_2021.pdf

Wilhite, D. A., & Glantz, M. H. (1985). Understanding the drought phenomenon: The role of definitions. Water International, 10(3), 111-120. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1019&context=droughtfacpub