The Hmong Community in France: A Situation of Political and Social Exclusion

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Anaïs Bargallo


This study sets up as context the French Republican model—lauding a universal and difference-blind conception of citizenship—in contradiction with the universal principle stated in the Human Rights Treaties. Considering that the Hmong has been living in France for more than 40 years and still not enjoy equal rights as the French citizens, this study questions the essence of the French Republican model. One of its visible consequences is the perpetuation of the political exclusion of minority groups, including of the Hmong community in France, which prevents them from representing and defending their interests in the political sphere. This political exclusion leads them to be socially excluded and from expressing the particularity of their identity. To reveal the inferior position of the Hmong in the French society, this study collects data through a set of qualitative methods of data analysis. As the implication, the study argues that the French republican model needs some revisions and thus calls for a new concept of citizenship that would bring more inclusion to the Hmong and equal rights. In conclusion, this study finds that the French republican system with its values tends to discriminate minority groups in France, including the Hmong people.

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Bargallo, A. (2018). The Hmong Community in France: A Situation of Political and Social Exclusion. Journal of Human Rights and Peace Studies, 4(2), 299–236. Retrieved from
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