From Protector to Violator: Assessing the State’s Role in Protecting Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

Main Article Content

Manotar Tampubolon


Although the Indonesian government protects, maintains,
and ensures freedom of religion for minority religions in the 1945
Constitution (Undang-Undang Dasar tahun, 1945), this freedom is not
necessarily applicable in the practice of religious life. On one hand,
the state has a duty as protector and guarantor of freedom, while on
the other hand, it turns into one of the actors violationg the freedom
of religious minorities. This article will discuss two fundamental
issues that interfere freedom of religion in Indonesia in the democratic
era. The first is that the state interferes with the freedom of minority
religions and the second is that the state deprives minority religious
groups of freedom of religion, either directly or by negligence. This
article will also evaluate the basic concepts of human rights protection
as non-discrimination and the equality principle as two of the
most important pillars of human rights architecture, the Indonesian
Constitution of 1945 as ground norm, and its derivative norms in
some national procedures. In addition, this article also discusses a
comprehensive state policy that discriminates against religious
expression by minority religio groups.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tampubolon, M. (2018). From Protector to Violator: Assessing the State’s Role in Protecting Freedom of Religion in Indonesia. Journal of Human Rights and Peace Studies, 2(1), 45–66. Retrieved from
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