Grading Practice for an Outcomes-based Education


  • Pichet Pinit Department of Mechanical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
  • Anusit Anmanatrakul
  • Jackkapan Meearsa



การศึกษาที่มุ่งผลลัพธ์การเรียนรู้, เกรด, การตัดเกรด, ระบบเกรด, Outcome-Based Education, Grade, Grading Practice, Grading System


Thai higher education focuses on an Outcome-based education (OBE) to transform traditional (or time-based) education. OBE has its strong point of intending to develop learners around the expected learning outcomes. Grading system (grade and grading practice) are integral part of the education system, especially an evaluation. Therefore, any changes leading to OBE need to also consider the grading system in the way that it is consistent with the concept of OBE. This article explores an in-depth concept of ​​the grade, namely, the purpose of grade, reference points of grading and grading practice to find the appropriate way of relating grades to OBE and to propose guidelines for transforming grades accordingly. Some of academic works including books, academic articles, and research articles were reviewed and analyzed with the concept of grade. The empirical results show that in traditional education, the relation between grade and learning is unclear. The purpose of the grade is varied. The reference points of grading includes a predetermined distribution (norm-referenced), an established set of scores (criterion-referenced), an established set of learning outcomes (criterion-referenced), and a progress of self-learning. Grading practice has two groups: a simple calculation and a complex calculation. The authors suggest that, within the context of OBE, the purpose of grade is to communicate to student achievement based on the expected learning outcomes. The preferred reference points of grading is the established set of learning outcomes. Also, the appropriate grading practice is the use of power law method of the complex calculation due to its conformity to learning curve. In addition, the author suggests guideline for policy, management, and practical implementation including future research.


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How to Cite

Pinit, P., Anmanatrakul, A., & Meearsa, J. (2020). Grading Practice for an Outcomes-based Education. Walailak Journal of Learning Innovations, 6(2), 59–96.