“COVID-19” from a Geographical Perspective :

A Case Study of the Daily Activities of the Residents of Bangkok and Vicinity

Authors

  • Sirivilai Teerarojanarat Chulalongkorn University
  • Areerut Patnukao Chulalongkorn University
  • Supachok Surawit Chulalongkorn University
  • Sireethorn Srichiraratana Chulalongkorn University

Keywords:

COVID-19, daily activities, Bangkok and vicinity, Time-Geography theory, Urban geography

Abstract

This research compares the daily activities of the residents of Bangkok and vicinity in the periods before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Line App (Line) and Google Sheets were used to deliver an online questionnaire to 377 respondents. Analysis and discussion of results were carried out according to principles and concepts of geography. Results showed that 1) the daily activities of Bangkok residents changed during the COVID-19 outbreak. There was a decrease in the frequency of travel to perform various daily activities such as commuting to work or school, traveling for shopping and services, and traveling for social or recreational activities. There was also a decrease in the average hours spent outdoors and on public transport. 2) The daily activities of urban residents can be interpreted using the Time-Geography theory. Before the COVID-19 outbreak, a space-time prism model can be used, while during the COVID-19 outbreak a virtual time-space model can be used, with ‘information and communications technology’ [ICT] replacing the ‘distance’ variable in the original model. 3) After the COVID-19 outbreak, the changed attitude towards the New Normal of urban residents and the government, who have become familiar with the use of information and communications technology (ICT), is likely to lead to developments in Bangkok and vicinity, making the area smarter in various aspects.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sirivilai Teerarojanarat, Chulalongkorn University

Geography and Geoinformation Research Unit, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts

Areerut Patnukao, Chulalongkorn University

Geography and Geoinformation Research Unit, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts

Supachok Surawit, Chulalongkorn University

Geography and Geoinformation Research Unit, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts

Sireethorn Srichiraratana , Chulalongkorn University

Geography and Geoinformation Research Unit, Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts

References

ภาษาไทย

Department of City Planning and Urban Development, BMA สำนักการวางผังและพัฒนาเมือง (2015). Rai-gnan karnsueksa karnborikarn khonsong Muanchon nai Krungtep Mahanakorn lae parimonthon pi phorsor 2558 รายงานการศึกษาการบริการขนส่งมวลชนในกรุงเทพมหานครและปริมณฑล ปี พ.ศ. 2558 [Report on the study of public services system in Bangkok and vicinity in 2015]. Retrieved April 8, 2022, from http://cmc.bangkok.go.th/bmaitev/web/uploads/24.pdf

Department of Disease Control กรมควบคุมโรค. (2022). Tarang kormun lae naewnom sathannakarn karn tid chuea COVID-19 rai jangwat ตารางข้อมูลและแนวโน้มสถานการณ์การติดเชื้อ COVID-19 รายจังหวัด [Data tapble and COVID-19 case trend of each province]. Retrieved April 8, 2022, from https://ddc.moph.go.th/covid19-dashboard/?dashboard=scoreboard

Energy Policy and Planning office (EPPO) สำนักงานนโยบายและแผนพลังงาน. (n.d.). Pheunthi khong amphur nai taela changwat พื้นที่ของอำเภอในแต่ละจังหวัด [District area in each province]. Retrieved January 4, 2022, from http://www.e-report.energy.go.th/area.html

Fiscal and Investment Information Center of BMA ศูนย์ข้อมูลเศรษฐกิจการคลังและการลงทุนของ กทม. (2020). Palittaphan Muanruam changwat Krungtep Mahanakorn ผลิตภัณฑ์มวลรวมจังหวัดกรุงเทพมหานคร [Gross provincial product: GPP, Bangkok]. Retrieved April 8, 2022, from http://203.155.220.117:8080/BMAWWW/upload/module_cms/title_cms/file_247534ab6922812935ac0182c090c008.pdf

Foreign Workers Administration Office กรมการจัดหางาน สำนักบริหารแรงงานต่างด้าว. (2021). Sathiti karn thamngan kong khontangdao 2564 สถิติการทำงานของคนต่างด้าว 2564 [Statistics of foreign workers in 2021]. Retrieved January 4, 2022, from https://www.doe.go.th/prd/assets/upload/files/alien_th/970af80cc9f306241a49aa386462a464.pdf

Manager Online ผู้จัดการออนไลน์. (2018). Kortormor triam plakdan 10 yan dang pud smart city กทม.เตรียมผลักดัน 10 ย่านดังผุดสมาร์ทซิตี [Bangkok planning to put forward 10 areas to be a smart city]. Retrieved January 1, 2022, from https://mgronline.com/uptodate/detail/9610000114083

Ministry of Digital Economy and Society กระทรวงดิจิทัลเพื่อเศรษฐกิจและสังคม. (2016). Phaen patibatkarn wara haeng chat: karn phattana mueang atchariya แผนปฏิบัติการวาระแห่งชาติ: การพัฒนาเมืองอัจฉริยะ [National strategic plan: The development of smart city]. Retrieved January 1, 2022, from http://mdes.go.th/assets/portals/1/files/591130_แผนปฏิบัติการวาระแห่งชาติ%20smart%20city%202.pdf

National Statistical Office สำนักงานสถิติแห่งชาติ. (2015). Rai-ngan prachakornfaeng Phorsor 2553 รายงานประชากรแฝง พ.ศ. 2553 [Non-registered population report in 2015]. Retrieved January 4, 2022, from http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014/Documents/pop/2553/registered-population-2553.pdf

National Statistical Office สำนักงานสถิติแห่งชาติ. (2016). Rai-ngan laksana khong prachakorn karn samruat karn plianplaeng khong prachakorn phorsor 2558-2559 รายงานลักษณะของประชากร การสำรวจการเปลี่ยนแปลงของประชากร พ.ศ. 2558 – 2559 [Report on population characteristics: the 2015-2016 survey of population change]. Retrived January 1, 2022, from http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014/DocLib13/ด้านสังคม/สาขาประชากร/Population_change/2558-2559/popchange58-59-Full.pdf

Sirivilai Teerarojanarat ศิริวิไล ธีระโรจนารัตน์. (2021). Phumisat Muang ภูมิศาสตร์เมือง [Urban geography]. Research and publication division, faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University.

Thansettakij ฐานเศรษฐกิจ. (2018). Khanakammakarn smart city Kortormor nun reng pattana khon song muan chon chueam tor yan CBD คณะกรรมการสมาร์ทซิตี้กทม. หนุนเร่งพัฒนาขนส่งมวลชนเชื่อมย่านซีบีดี [Accelerated development of public transportation to connect CBD]. Retrieved January 1, 2022, from http://www.thansettakij.com/content/357455

The Bureau of Registraion Admistration (BORA) สำนักทะเบียนกลาง. (2021). Chamnuan ratsadorn tua ratcha anachak 2564 จำนวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร 2564 [Population number of the country in 2021]. Retrieved January 4, 2022, from https://stat.bora.dopa.go.th/stat/y_stat54.htm

Yuen Poovarawan ยืน ภู่วรวรรณ. (2021). 2.2 Teknoloyi digital kap chivit withi mai 2.2 เทคโนโลยีดิจิทัลกับชีวิตวิถีใหม่ [2.2 Technology digital and New Normal life] [MOOC lecture]. In Yong Poovorawan & Yuen Poovarawan, Chivit withi mai lae kwamchalat thang digital ชีวิตวิถีใหม่และความฉลาดทางดิจิทัล [New Normal life and digital intelligence]. Retrieved January 1, 2022, from https://learningdq-dc.ku.ac.th/course/?c=2&l=2

ภาษาอังกฤษ

Asgari, H., Jin, X., & Rojas, M. B., IV. (2019). Time geography of daily activities: A closer look into telecommute impacts. Travel Behaviour and Society, 16, 99-107.

Barnes, S. J. (2020). Information management research and practice in the post-COVID-19 world. International Journal of Information Management, 55, 102175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102175

Bissell, D. (2021). A changing sense of place: Geography and COVID‐19. Geographical Research, 59(2), 150-159. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-5871.12465

Caulfield, B. (2015). Does it pay to work from home? Examining the factors influencing working from home in the Greater Dublin Area. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 3(2), 206-214.

Cohan, P. (2020). How COVID-19 crunch compares to Spanish flu, Great Depression. Forbes. Retrieved January 2, 2022, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2020/04/06/how-covid-19-crunch-compares-to-spanish-flu-great-depression/?sh=b111bf31798d

Colvin, C., & McLaughlin, E. (2020). Coronavirus and Spanish flu: economic lessons to learn from the last truly global pandemic. The Conversation. Retrieved January 2, 2022, from https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-and-spanish-flu-economic-lessons-tolearn-from-the-last-truly-global-pandemic-133176

Cucinotta, D., & Vanelli M. (2020). WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis, 91(1), 157-160. https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i1.9397

Ellegård, K. (1999). A time-geographical approach to the study of everyday life of individuals – a challenge of complexity. GeoJournal, 48, 167-175. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007071407502

Fatmi, M. R. (2020). COVID-19 impact on urban mobility. Journal of Urban Management, 9(3), 270-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jum.2020.08.002

Hägerstrand, T. (1970.) What about people in regional science? Regional Science Association, 24, 6-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01936872

Haleem, A., Javaid, M., & Vaishya, R. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Current medicine research and practice, 10(2), 78–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011

Keefer, L. E., & Witheford, D. K. (1969). Urban Travel Patterns for Hospitals, Universities, Office Buildings, and Capitols. Highway Research Board, Division of Engineering.

Kim, H. M. (2021). Smart cities beyond COVID-19. In H. M. Kim, S. Sabri, & A. Kent (Eds.), Smart cities for technological and social innovation: Case studies, current trends, and future steps (pp. 299-308). Elsevier.

Klapka, P., Ellegård, K., & Frantál, B. (2020). What about Time-Geography in the post-Covid-19 era? Moravian Geographical Reports, 28(4), 238-247.

Lang, W., Pan, M., Wu, J., Chen, T., & Li, X. (2021). The patterns and driving forces of uneven regional growth in ASEAN countries: A tale of two Thailands' path toward regional coordinated development. Growth and Change, 52(1), 130-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12459

Lari, A. (2012). Telework/Workforce flexibility to reduce congestion and environmental degradation? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 48, 712-721.

Miller, H. J. (2005). A measurement theory for time geography. Geographical analysis, 37(1), 17-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.2005.00575.x

Pirdavani, A., Brijs, T., Bellemans, T., Kochan, B., & Wets, G. (2013). Assessing the impacts of a teleworking policy on crash occurrence: The case of Flanders, Belgium. Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., USA. (pp. 1-18). Retrieved April 4, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256461164_Assessing_the_Impacts_of_a_Teleworking_Policy_on_Crash_Occurrence_The_Case_of_Flanders_Belgium

Solanke, M. O. (2013). Intra-Urban work and school trips characteristics in Ogun state, Nigeria. International Journal of Development and sustainability, 2(2), 987-997.

Stewart, R. (2020). Stores may be reopening, but brands shouldn’t put e-commerce back on the simmer. The Drum. Retrieved September 21, 2020, from https://www.thedrum.com/news/2020/06/11/stores-may-be-reopening-brands-shouldn-t-put-e-commerce-back-the-simmer

Tang, J., Song, Y., Miller, H. J. & Zhou, X. (2016). Estimating the most likely space–time paths, dwell times and path uncertainties from vehicle trajectory data: A time geographic method. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 66, 176-194.

Triukose, S., Nitinawarat, S., Satian, P., Somboonsavatdee, A., Chotikarn, P., Thammasanya, T., Wanlapakorn, N., Sudhinaraset, N., Boonyamalik, P., Kakhong, B., & Poovorawan, Y. (2021). Effects of public health interventions on the epidemiological spread during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand. PloS one, 16(2), e0246274. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246274

Vu, S., & Vandebona, U. (2007). A model for analysis of impacts of telecommuting on network travel time. In 30th Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF) (pp. 1-15). ATRF Organising Committee. Retrieved April 4, 2022, from https://www.australasiantransportresearchforum.org.au/sites/default/files/2007_Vu_Vandebona.pdf

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report-51. Retrieved April 4, 2022, from https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331475

World Health Organization (WHO). (2022). WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. Retrieved April 4, 2022, from https://covid19.who.int/

World Health Organization (WHO). (n.d.). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Retrieved April 4, 2022, from https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1

Yamane, T. (1973). An introductory analysis of Statistics. Harper and Row.

Yin, Z., Huang, W., Ying, S., Tang, P., Kang, Z., & Huang K. (2021). Measuring of the COVID-19 Based on Time-Geography. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(19), 10313. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph181910313

Published

2022-06-28

How to Cite

Teerarojanarat, S., Patnukao, A. ., Surawit, S. ., & Srichiraratana , S. (2022). “COVID-19” from a Geographical Perspective : : A Case Study of the Daily Activities of the Residents of Bangkok and Vicinity. Journal of Letters, 51(1), 110–133. Retrieved from https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jletters/article/view/257811

Issue

Section

Research Articles