Journal of Politics and Governance https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag <p>The College of Politics and Governance (COPAG), Mahasarakham University, as a political science academic unit, recognizes the importance of the publication of academic researches and other scholarly works. Accordingly, the Journal of Politics and Governance (JOPAG) aims at publicizing scholarly oeuvres on politics and governance with national and international standards, and thereby strengthening COPAG’s academic reputation.&nbsp;The first printed version of the Journal of Politics and Governance was launched in 2010 and the online version of the journal became available in 2013.<br><br><strong>Publisher :&nbsp;</strong>College of Politics and Governance (COPAG), Mahasarakham University</p> <p><strong>Publication scheduled : </strong>Three&nbsp;yearly</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Issue 1 : January - April&nbsp;<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Issue 2 : May -August&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Issue 3 : September – December&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Print ISSN</strong>&nbsp; &nbsp;: 2228-8562</p> <p><strong>E-ISSN</strong> :&nbsp;2697-3790</p> College of Politics and Governance (COPAG), Mahasarakham University en-US Journal of Politics and Governance 2228-8562 Thailand Political Society Change in the Era of Thaksin Shinawatra (2001-2006) https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263097 <p>The purpose of this research is to study Thailand political society change in the era of Thaksin Shinawatra (2001-2006) on the following issues 1) Factors leading to Thailand political society change, 2) The essence of Thailand political society change, and 3) The impact of Thailand political society change. The method of this study is documentary research and the presentation of research results is in the form of analysis descriptive. The study found that 1) the factors leading to Thailand political society change during Thaksin Shinawatra era between 2001 and 2006 are divided into 2 factors. The first is external factors that include the spread of democracy leading to political reform, the spread of neoliberalism and populism, and the changes in information technology. The second factor is internal factors that included the birth of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 1997, the economic crisis in 1997, and social changes. 2) The essence of Thailand political society change during Thaksin Shinawatra era between 2001 and 2006 came from the establishment of the Thai Rak Thai Party which is a large capital group. Victory from the election of members of parliament leading to the change of the House of Representatives, government establishment from the Thai Rak Thai Party, bureaucratic reform to be a government tool, and the changes of civil society. 3) The impact of Thailand political society change during Thaksin Shinawatra era from 2001 to 2006 led to the advent of the Thaksinocracy which led to changes in the Thai political system through institutions and political institutions and processes which consist of a political party, election, parliament, government, bureaucracy, and civil society.</p> Thasothorn Tootongkam Thongchai Wongchaisuwan Sakrit Isariyanon Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Politics and Governance 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 1 16 Context-Sensitive Approaches to Municipality Administration for Local Government in Lao PDR https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263101 <p>The objectives of this research were to study problems in municipality administration and determine context-sensitive approaches to municipality administration for local government in Lao PDR. This is qualitative research that was conducted in urban administrative areas managed by district-level local administration organizations, including the municipalities of Luang Prabang, Kaysone Phomvihane, and Pakse. The research tool was an in-depth interview of three groups of key informants: informants from the central government; local informants from the provinces; and administrators working in municipal government offices. By purposive sampling, there were 11 informants overall, using descriptive synthetic analysis. The research findings show that municipal administration is no different from the district. The structure and roles of the responsibilities are not yet clear. The practicalities of administration, management, and safeguarding of the budget were never clearly determined, specifically in terms of the municipality’s role, and especially in terms of collecting and managing revenues. Citizens generally maintained the understanding that the central government was solely responsible for urban development. In addition, the effectiveness of government personnel was affected by a lack of specialized knowledge. Regarding context-sensitive approaches to municipality administration for local governments in Lao PDR, this study recommends that municipalities put the central government’s three-tiered policy guidelines into more concrete practice. The law on local administration should be reviewed, and knowledge and understanding of effective municipal administration should be fostered. The organizational structure must be upgraded, with clarified mechanisms for coordination and roles and duties of the municipality. The municipality must be able to manage itself with its own fixed budget, and technology should be used as much as possible in municipal administration. There must be mechanisms or channels for people’s participation. Enhancement of human resources should focus on developing staff-state readiness. Public services should be provided, and a good environment should be established in municipal centers with clearly determined development zones.</p> Panyasack Sengonke Sukanya Aimimtham Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 17 34 Election Behavior B.E. 2562 of People in Surat Thani Province https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263104 <p>This article presents a study of electoral behaviors in the 2019 Thailand general election in Surat Thani province. The objectives were (1) to study of political climate in the 2019 Thailand general election in Surat Thani province; (2) to study of political movements and political behavior of candidates; (3) to study roles of state departments and other organizations in the election; (4) to study changes of people’s political behaviors; (5) to study the use of election campaign resources; (6) to study candidates who have switched​ political parties and factors that affected people’s decision-making. This study was qualitative research using methods of documentary study, participant and non-participant observation, in-depth interview by accidental sampling from six election zones. The research revealed the following (1) There are many candidates because election was not held for a long time and the impact of mixed member apportionment election system, however, the contest among candidates was not severe. (2) Election campaign methods were not different from previous elections except more use of social media and candidates from different parties did not disparage or blame each other. (3) State officers were neutral and collaborated with other organizations properly. (4) Political behavior of people in Surat Thani Province have not been changed from previous elections, and voters continued to admire the Democratic Party. (5) People have a negative attitude toward candidates who used financial fraud, however, some non-monetary incentives for election fraud were found. (6) People think that candidates who have switched​ political parties and those who are part of political dynasties are acceptable because their​ new​ party makes more choices for people, however, the factor that most affected people’s decision-making is political party. The study suggested that public agencies should make people more understand about new election system and use more information technology in election management.</p> Gridsada Pannarai Niti Maneekarn Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 35 51 Guidelines for Phetchaburi Development by the Civil Society and Geo-Public Administration of Phetchaburi Province https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263105 <p>The purposes of this research were (1) to analyze the civil society, and the geo-public administration of Phetchaburi Province, (2) to discuss the ways to develop the city’s civil society and the geo-public administration of Phetchaburi Province, and (3) to offer concrete ways to develop the city’s civil society and the geo-public administration of Phetchaburi Province. The study was qualitative research conducted using documents and in-depth interviews. People who gave key information to this research included academic experts, historians, residents’ philosophical ideas as well as senior residents, and a selected community group. The research results revealed that the community thoughts included traditional festivals, jobs, local games ideas, and technology. These communal activities created a bond in the group that shared, promoted and continued knowledge as well as worked with the government sectors. The thought processes of the geo-public administration of Phetchaburi Province included the theological thoughts, geographic location, population density, landscape, and history. These all had some level of interaction to the administration; where geographical location did create a community of resources and funds. Moreover, the results showed that the development of Phetchaburi Province from the concept of “The extent of knowledge” was under the principle of mutual residents’ rights creating an understanding that the locals were the key to funding, identity and relationship with other organizations to the city. “The extent of performance” was under the individuals with the participation and promotion of the city’s concepts and identities that signified the norm of Phetchaburi residents. “The extent of knowledge” was under a managing principle to develop areas and adapt to public campaigns. “The extent of performance” was under a signified principle of the improvement of the geo-public administration patterns tied with the improving standard of living to the city and development plans. Finally, the processes of development from the communal ideas included the identity of the city, the use of public spaces in the city, and the development of funds in the administration. The development of ideas geo-public administration included the interaction of analyzed plans, interaction to the Southern cities and the interaction to the hygienic, and happy place.</p> Saranpat Eawjaroen Jeera Prateep Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 52 73 Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Public Services: A Case Study of the Development of Light Rail Transit in Khon Kaen https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263106 <p>The objectives of this study are to examine and analyze 1) the history of the concept of public-private partnership (PPP); 2) experiences of local government organizations in Thailand and abroad in applying the concept of PPP in developing rail transportation in urban areas; and 3) problems, obstacles, and limitations of legal measures affecting the use of the aforementioned concepts in developing light rail transit in Khon Kaen. Results were that the concept of PPP can solve budgetary shortfalls for local government organization infrastructure investment, decreasing budget dependency upon the central government, and increasing efficiency in providing public services. However, applying the concept of PPP to light rail transit in Khon Kaen proved difficult due to problems, obstacles, and limitations causing project delays, including approval for establishing a municipal limited company, supervising a municipal limited company, implementing the law on PPP, and land use planning. Therefore the concept of PPP should be supplemented by appropriate investment promotion measures, while relevant environmental laws facilitate joint ventures between local government organizations and the private sector.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anilthita Janthep Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 74 97 Factors Influencing Public Participation in the Operation of Local Administration Organizations in Nakhon Pathom Province https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263110 <p>This quantitative research studied 1) public participation in the operation of local administration organizations in Nakhon Pathom Province, 2) factors influencing public participation in the operation of local administration organizations in Nakhon Pathom Province, and 3) the creation of a prediction equation to forecast public participation in the operation of local administration organizations that varied from independent factors. The samples were 1,188 people with elective rights, and sample size was determined using the G*Power program. The research instrument was a five-rating scale questionnaire with overall reliability at 0.91. Statistics used included Mean, Standard Deviation, Pearson’s Product Moment Multiple Correlation Coefficient, and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. Results showed that overall public participation in the operation of local administration was at the medium level. Eight factors statistically influenced overall public participation in the operation of local administration organizations in Nakhon Pathom Province at the 0.05 level. These were identified as Power Motivation (Beta = 0.61), Achievement Motivation (Beta = 0.54), Affiliation Motivation (Beta = 0.49), Community Leadership (Beta = 0.41), Public Benefit Needs (Beta = 0.28), Social Relation Needs (Beta = 0.21), Community Trouble Displeasure (Beta = 0.18) and Political Interest Factor (Beta = 0.14). The standardized prediction equation to forecast public participation was identified as <img title="\hat{Z}" src="https://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?\hat{Z}">= 0.49Z1 + 0.54Z2 + 0.61Z3 + 0.21Z4 + 0.28Z6 + 0.18Z9 + 0.41Z12 + 0.14Z13.</p> Kunprapat Rumpungjit Phatharaporn Jaipheng Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 98 110 The readiness of the Public Participation in an Enactment of Agricultural Residues Burning Regulation https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263111 <p>There are a variety of economic crops grown around Thailand. After harvesting the crops, most of the people prefer burning the residue rather than any other methods which severely causes several negative effects to the environment. Hence, the researcher decided to investigate the participation of the people and communities in an enactment of the agricultural residue burning regulation with an aim to seek a proper controlling approach for this inappropriate removal of agricultural residues. The study outcome reveals that the people in the area were promoted with a campaign for residue burning reduction so they were well-prepared to reduce, avoid, and stop burning the waste. They were also ready to participate in an enactment of Agricultural Residues Burning Regulation starting from initiative thinking, making decision, planning, and cooperating with the government organization in every step of process with their strong will. This outcome was far different from the people without the campaign who were unready to reduce, avoid, and stop burning the residue and they desired not to join in enacting Agricultural Residues Burning Regulation. This study additionally suggested that in case of the people unprepared to cooperate with the government organization, the organization should create an activity that encourage them to share their ideas and perspectives as well as to remind them of their significant role in strengthening their own community that will further create a truly participatory collaboration between those two sectors.</p> Tunlaya Rojthangkham Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 111 124 Higher Educational Institutions and the Support for the Completeness of Business Eco-system of Social Enterprises in Thailand https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263123 <p>The research paper on Higher Educational Institutions and the support for the completeness of Business Eco-system of Social Enterprises in Thailand had 2 objectives. The first aim was to analyze the completeness of business eco-system of social enterprises in Thailand. The second objective was to analyze roles played by higher educational institutions in the business eco-system. The methods for data collection were documentary research and semi-structured interview in focus group meeting setting. Key informants were the executive staff of Bachelor of Arts Degree Program in Creative Development, Puey Ungphakorn School of Development Studies, Thammasart University. The method for data analysis was content analysis from documentary data and the interview data. The study result found out that the Thai government has had clear policy to support social enterprise since 2010 until the successful entry into force of the 2019 Social Enterprise Promotion Act. Registration system for special support and specific supervising agency establishment were stressed. Finance providers often granted non-financial supports along with start-up grants, while loans and social impact investment were less in number. Market access through public procurement mechanism has been in the early stage of development, but initiatives by the private and civil societal sectors have been put in place. Banpu Public Company Limited has been a key player of business support infrastructure, while SET Social Impact has been a key player of supporting organizations and Social Enterprise Thailand Association of peer organization among social enterprises. Higher educational institutions have had critical role in supporting the development of future social entrepreneurs. At present, increasing numbers of them have developed diverge types of curricula and activities involving social enterprises including bachelor degree and master degree curricula as well as short course.</p> Nadhawee Bunnag Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 125 145 Factors Affecting Policy Implementation According to The Boxing Sport Act https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263124 <p>This research studied 1) the level of factors affecting policy implementation according to The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai), 2) the level of policy implementation according to The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai), 3) the factors affecting policy implementation under The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai), and 4) a policy implementation model according to The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai). The sample number consisted of 308 individuals involved in boxing activities obtained by Yamane's formula. The research instrument was a questionnaire. The qualitative research target group consisted of 18 samples and was conducted using focus groups. The research instrument was an interview form. Statistical data collected included frequency, percentage distribution, mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis (Stepwise method). Results indicated that the level of factors affecting the overall implementation of policies under The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai) was at a high level. Policy implementation level according to The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai) was also at a high level. Six factors statistically affected policy implementation under The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai) at the .05 level. These were identified as Management, Related Organizations, Foreign Affairs, Policy Objectives, Politics and Communication, and Coordination. These six factors explained the variation in the dependent variable at 48.10% (R2 = .481, F = 60.457). The standardized prediction equation was identified as Zr = .291Z5 + .229Z3 + .211Z9 -.303 Z1 + .201Z7 + 155Z4. The policy implementation model suggested that The Boxing Sport Act (Muay Thai) should be revised to better reflect the context of modern society, and provide legal enforcement measures for boxers and referees as well other involved personnel.</p> Songkiat Lanphonsaen Rungsun Injun Wathcarin Sutthisai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 146 160 Development of Rights to Data Privacy in Thailand https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263126 <p>The development of Thai Personal Data Protection has been slow due to the lack of specific law that can generally applied to all situation. At first, Thailand applied this form of protection only on rules of tort in both civil law and criminal law for violating disclosed secrets and defamation. Consequently, public law was introduced to protect the rights, including the constitutional provisions and others laws such as, the Official Information Act 2540, Credit information Business Act B.E.2545, Computer Crime Act B.E.2550, etc., which has the characteristics to protect some specific personal data at some certain types. However, there is no general law that can applied to all kind of personal data protection. Not until the upcoming of the promulgation of the Personal Data Protection Act B.E. 2562. This is the first time that Thailand has established the personal data protection law in the form of general law. Notwithstanding, because of the rapid change of new information technology and the General Data Protection Regulation of the European Union. Therefore, Thailand needs to develop both the principles of law and the process of enforcement. The personal data protection need to be international standard in order to cope with the possible pressure from the new international rules and regulation that may be the cause of accusation of an unfavourable law that possible cause trade barriers in the future.</p> Noppadon Nimnoo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 161 179 Diplomacy across the Seas: Learning Tools from Thai Foreign Policy Experience https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263132 <p>งานวิจัยนี้ได้รับการสนับสนุนจากสำนักงานกองทุนสนับสนุนการวิจัย (สกว.) ซึงขณะนี้ได้เปลี่ยนเป็น สำนักงานคณะกรรมการส่งเสริม วิทยาศาสตร์ วิจัยและนวัตกรรม (สกสว) งานวิจัยดังกล่าวเป็นการสังเคราะห์บทเรียนจากชุดโครงการวิจัยของสุรพงษ์ ชัยนาม ว่าด้วยนโยบายต่างประเทศไทยต่อประเทศเพื่อนบ้าน ทั้ง 9 ประเทศในเอเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ สมัยสงครามเย็น</p> Sida Sonsri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 247 255 Front and Back Cover https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263133 Editor Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 Editorial Note https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263134 Editor Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 Contents https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263135 Editor Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 Building a Civic Culture and The Eliminating of Social Inequality https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263127 <p>This article has argued that the democracy and economic development around the world is facing serious social inequality issues. Currently, Thai society is also facing this severe problem. The problem of social inequality in Thai society has many dimensions. But when analyzing the main cause factors, it was found that there are two things, the first is from the structural problems of Thai society, the second is due to the weakness of the basis of Thai political culture and the behavior of people in society. Both of these are interrelated. Causing Thai society to have been trapped in social inequality for a long time. Throughout the period many past years, The Thai state has sought to reduce inequality and create social equality but the consequences of the solution have not been successful. It still just a policy and roadmap. There is no any practical effect. In this article trial to propose a solution to eliminating the problem of social inequality in the political sociology perspective. By creating a civic culture or a brand - new political culture through organizations and social institutions. People must have the fundamental beliefs that they have political efficacy as following. First, to solving the problem of social inequality is a primary duty of everyone to be attentive and have a shared responsibility to push forward or take action. Everyone cannot deny their responsibility. Second, people must believe that they are one of the political forces that have the capability of changing the problem of social inequality in a better direction and must participate in the operation as a driving force to seriously keep improve this problem.</p> Pornamarin Promgird Warunya Sririn Wanichcha Narongchai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 180 199 Contemporary Isan Politicians: A Survey on The State of Knowledge https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263130 <p>This study aims to explore academic researches on politicians in northeast Thailand by emphasizing national politicians from a general election or members of the House of Representatives in current context. The knowledge about the politicians in northeast Thailand appears in the studies about Thai 2019 general election which were published in 2020. The first part of the article is as follows: 1) northeastern politicians and political parties in Thai 2019 general election 2) northeastern politicians and money and 3) northeastern politicians and local network. The other part suggests arguments for further study.</p> Sarawudhi Wisaprom Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 200 224 Discourse on Prostitutes in Thai Society during Pre-development Period (B.E. 2451-2457) https://so03.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/jopag/article/view/263131 <p>The aim of this article was to analyze a discourse on Prostitutes policy in Thai society during pre-development period, particularly the era of King Chulalongkorn the Great (Rama V) to explain economic, social and cultural contexts in this period; how these contexts had a significant influence to the discourse on Prostitutes policy; what counter-discourses arising from discourse on Prostitutes policy were; In pre-development period, the discourse on Prostitutes policy was significantly formed through economic context. The government king played a dominant role for defining Prostitutes under the concepts and thoughts specifically aiming at improving national economic development. In this period, roads were important basic factors for economic development. Most of revenues for road construction relied on tax collected from Prostitutes business; the tax was called road maintenance tax. The government gained a huge income from this business through policy mechanism which was tax collection system. The fact that the business created a huge income for the government, it caused conflicts between interstate economic and political power (the King) and the elites (Tax collectors). Consequently, the counter-discourse was arisen by a group of elites in various forms. As a result, the government implemented a counter-measure by annulling Prostitutes business tax collection system, enabling the government to absolutely recentralize and reserve its power related to Prostitutes policy in Thai society throughout pre-development period. </p> Tuvapon Tong-intarach Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-31 2022-08-31 12 2 225 246